Bible Dictionary


Imla: replenisher, the father of Micaiah the prophet (2 Chr. 18:7,8).

Immanuel: God with us. In the Old Testament it occurs only in Isa. 7:14 and 8:8. Most Christian interpreters have regarded these words as directly and exclusively a prophecy of our Saviour, an interpretation borne out by the words of the evangelist Matthew (1:23).

Immer: talkative. (1.) The head of the sixteenth priestly order (1 Chr. 24:14). (2.) Jer. 20:1. (3.) Ezra 2:37; Neh. 7:40. (4.) Ezra 2:59; Neh. 7:61. (5.) The father of Zadok (Neh. 3:29).

Immortality: perpetuity of existence. The doctrine of immortality is taught in the Old Testament. It is plainly implied in the writings of Moses (Gen. 5:22, 24; 25:8; 37:35; 47:9; 49:29, comp. Heb. 11:13-16; Ex. 3:6, comp. Matt. 22:23). It is more clearly and fully taught in the later books (Isa. 14:9; Ps. 17:15; 49:15; 73:24). It was thus a doctrine obviously well known to the Jews.

Imputation: is used to designate any action or word or thing as reckoned to a person. Thus in doctrinal language (1) the sin of Adam is imputed to all his descendants, i.e., it is reckoned as theirs, and they are dealt with therefore as guilty; (2) the righteousness of Christ is imputed to them that believe in him, or so attributed to them as to be considered their own; and (3) our sins are imputed to Christ, i.e., he assumed our 'law-place,' undertook to answer the demands of justice for our sins. In all these cases the nature of imputation is the same (Rom. 5:12-19; comp. Philemon 1:18, 19).

Incarnation: that act of grace whereby Christ took our human nature into union with his Divine Person, became man. Christ is both God and man. Human attributes and actions are predicated of him, and he of whom they are predicated is God. A Divine Person was united to a human nature (Acts 20:28; Rom. 8:32; 1 Cor. 2:8; Heb. 2:11-14; 1 Tim. 3:16; Gal. 4:4, etc.). The union is hypostatical, i.e., is personal; the two natures are not mixed or confounded, and it is perpetual.

Incense: a fragrant composition prepared by the 'art of the apothecary.' It consisted of four ingredients 'beaten small' (Ex. 30:34-36). That which was not thus prepared was called 'strange incense' (30:9). It was offered along with every meat-offering; and besides was daily offered on the golden altar in the holy place, and on the great day of atonement was burnt by the high priest in the holy of holies (30:7, 8). It was the symbol of prayer (Ps. 141:1,2; Rev. 5:8; 8:3, 4).

India: occurs only in Esther 1:1 and 8:9, where the extent of the dominion of the Persian king is described. The country so designated here is not the peninsula of Hindustan, but the country surrounding the Indus, the Punjab. The people and the products of India were well known to the Jews, who seem to have carried on an active trade with that country (Ezek. 27:15, 24).

Inkhorn: The Hebrew word so rendered means simply a round vessel or cup for containing ink, which was generally worn by writers in the girdle (Ezek. 9:2, 3,11). The word 'inkhorn' was used by the translators, because in former times in this country horns were used for containing ink.

Inn: in the modern sense, unknown in the East. The khans or caravanserais, which correspond to the European inn, are not alluded to in the Old Testament. The 'inn' mentioned in Ex. 4:24 was just the halting-place of the caravan. In later times khans were erected for the accommodation of travellers. In Luke 2:7 the word there so rendered denotes a place for loosing the beasts of their burdens. It is rendered 'guest-chamber' in Mark 14:14 and Luke 22:11. In Luke 10:34 the word so rendered is different. That inn had an 'inn-keeper,' who attended to the wants of travellers.

Inspiration: that extraordinary or supernatural divine influence vouchsafed to those who wrote the Holy Scriptures, rendering their writings infallible. 'All scripture is given by inspiration of God' (R.V., 'Every scripture inspired of God'), 2 Tim. 3:16. This is true of all the 'sacred writings,' not in the sense of their being works of genius or of supernatural insight, but as 'theopneustic,' i.e., 'breathed into by God' in such a sense that the writers were supernaturally guided to express exactly what God intended them to express as a revelation of his mind and will. The testimony of the sacred writers themselves abundantly demonstrates this truth; and if they are infallible as teachers of doctrine, then the doctrine of plenary inspiration must be accepted. There are no errors in the Bible as it came from God, none have been proved to exist. Difficulties and phenomena we cannot explain are not errors. All these books of the Old and New Testaments are inspired. We do not say that they contain, but that they are, the Word of God. The gift of inspiration rendered the writers the organs of God, for the infallible communication of his mind and will, in the very manner and words in which it was originally given.

Intercession of Christ: Christ's priestly office consists of these two parts, (1) the offering up of himself as a sacrifice, and (2) making continual intercession for us.

Intercession of the Spirit: (Rom. 8:26, 27; John 14:26). 'Christ is a royal Priest (Zech. 6:13). From the same throne, as King, he dispenses his Spirit to all the objects of his care, while as Priest he intercedes for them. The Spirit acts for him, taking only of his things. They both act with one consent, Christ as principal, the Spirit as his agent. Christ intercedes for us, without us, as our advocate in heaven, according to the provisions of the everlasting covenant. The Holy Spirit works upon our minds and hearts, enlightening and quickening, and thus determining our desires 'according to the will of God,' as our advocate within us. The work of the one is complementary to that of the other, and together they form a complete whole.', Hodge's Outlines of Theology.

Iphedeiah: set free by Jehovah, a chief of the tribe of Benjamin (1 Chr. 8:25).

Ira: citizen; wakeful. (1.) A Tekoite, one of David's thirty warriors (2 Sam. 23:26).

Irad: runner; wild ass, one of the antediluvian patriarchs, the father of Mehujael (Gen. 4:18), and grandson of Cain.

Iram: citizen, chief of an Edomite tribe in Mount Seir (Gen. 36:43).

Irha-heres: according to some MSS., meaning 'city of destruction.' Other MSS. read _'Irhahares_; rendered 'city of the sun', Isa. 19:18, where alone the word occurs. This name may probably refer to Heliopolis. The prophecy here points to a time when the Jews would so increase in number there as that the city would fall under their influence. This might be in the time of the Ptolemies. (See ON.)

Iron: Tubal-Cain is the first-mentioned worker in iron (Gen. 4:22). The Egyptians wrought it at Sinai before the Exodus. David prepared it in great abundance for the temple (1 Chr. 22:3: 29:7). The merchants of Dan and Javan brought it to the market of Tyre (Ezek. 27:19). Various instruments are mentioned as made of iron (Deut. 27:5; 19:5; Josh. 17:16, 18; 1 Sam. 17:7; 2 Sam. 12:31; 2 Kings 6:5, 6; 1 Chr. 22:3; Isa. 10:34).

Irrigation: As streams were few in Palestine, water was generally stored up in winter in reservoirs, and distributed through gardens in numerous rills, which could easily be turned or diverted by the foot (Deut. 11:10).

Isaac: laughter. (1) Israel, or the kingdom of the ten tribes (Amos 7:9, 16).

Isaiah: (Heb. Yesh'yahu, i.e., 'the salvation of Jehovah'). (1.) The son of Amoz (Isa. 1:1; 2:1), who was apparently a man of humble rank. His wife was called 'the prophetess' (8:3), either because she was endowed with the prophetic gift, like Deborah (Judg. 4:4) and Huldah (2 Kings 22:14-20), or simply because she was the wife of 'the prophet' (Isa. 38:1). He had two sons, who bore symbolical names.

Isaiah, The Book of: consists of prophecies delivered (Isa. 1) in the reign of Uzziah (1-5), (2) of Jotham (6), (3) Ahaz (7-14:28), (4) the first half of Hezekiah's reign (14:28-35), (5) the second half of Hezekiah's reign (36-66). Thus, counting from the fourth year before Uzziah's death (B.C. 762) to the last year of Hezekiah (B.C. 698), Isaiah's ministry extended over a period of sixty-four years. He may, however, have survived Hezekiah, and may have perished in the way indicated above.

Iscah: spy, the daughter of Haran and sister of Milcah and Lot (Gen. 11:29, 31).

Iscariot: (See JUDAS.)

Ish-bosheth: man of shame or humiliation, the youngest of Saul's four sons, and the only one who survived him (2 Sam. 2-4). His name was originally Eshbaal (1 Chr. 8:33; 9:39). He was about forty years of age when his father and three brothers fell at the battle of Gilboa. Through the influence of Abner, Saul's cousin, he was acknowledged as successor to the throne of Saul, and ruled over all Israel, except the tribe of Judah (over whom David was king), for two years, having Mahanaim, on the east of Jordan, as his capital (2 Sam. 2:9). After a troubled and uncertain reign he was murdered by his guard, who stabbed him while he was asleep on his couch at mid-day (2 Sam. 4:5-7); and having cut off his head, presented it to David, who sternly rebuked them for this cold-blooded murder, and ordered them to be immediately executed (9-12).

Ishbak: leaving, one of Abraham's sons by Keturah (Gen. 25:2).

Ishbi-benob: my seat at Nob, one of the Rephaim, whose spear was three hundred shekels in weight. He was slain by Abishai (2 Sam. 21:16, 17).

Ishi: my husband, a symbolical name used in Hos. 2:16 (See BAALI

Ishmael: God hears. (1.) Abraham's eldest son, by Hagar the concubine (Gen. 16:15; 17:23). He was born at Mamre, when Abraham was eighty-six years of age, eleven years after his arrival in Canaan (16:3; 21:5). At the age of thirteen he was circumcised (17:25). He grew up a true child of the desert, wild and wayward. On the occasion of the weaning of Isaac his rude and wayward spirit broke out in expressions of insult and mockery (21:9, 10); and Sarah, discovering this, said to Abraham, 'Expel this slave and her son.' Influenced by a divine admonition, Abraham dismissed Hagar and her son with no more than a skin of water and some bread. The narrative describing this act is one of the most beautiful and touching incidents of patriarchal life (Gen. 21:14-16). (See HAGAR.)

Ishmaiah: heard by Jehovah. (1.) A Gibeonite who joined David at Ziklag, 'a hero among the thirty and over the thirty' (1 Chr. 12:4).

Ishmeelites: (Gen. 37:28; 39:1, A.V.) should be 'Ishmaelites,' as in the Revised Version.

Ishtob: man of Tob, one of the small Syrian kingdoms which together constituted Aram (2 Sam. 10:6,8).

Island: (Heb. 'i, 'dry land,' as opposed to water) occurs in its usual signification (Isa. 42:4, 10, 12, 15, comp. Jer. 47:4), but more frequently simply denotes a maritime region or sea-coast (Isa. 20:6, R.V.,' coastland;' 23:2, 6; Jer. 2:10; Ezek. 27:6, 7). (See CHITTIM.) The shores of the Mediterranean are called the 'islands of the sea' (Isa. 11:11), or the 'isles of the Gentiles' (Gen. 10:5), and sometimes simply 'isles' (Ps. 72:10); Ezek. 26:15, 18; 27:3, 35; Dan. 11:18).

Israel: the name conferred on Jacob after the great prayer-struggle at Peniel (Gen. 32:28), because 'as a prince he had power with God and prevailed.' (See JACOB.) This is the common name given to Jacob's descendants. The whole people of the twelve tribes are called 'Israelites,' the 'children of Israel' (Josh. 3:17; 7:25; Judg. 8:27; Jer. 3:21), and the 'house of Israel' (Ex. 16:31; 40:38).

Israel, Kingdom of: (B.C. 975-B.C. 722). Soon after the death of Solomon, Ahijah's prophecy (1 Kings 11:31-35) was fulfilled, and the kingdom was rent in twain. Rehoboam, the son and successor of Solomon, was scarcely seated on his throne when the old jealousies between Judah and the other tribes broke out anew, and Jeroboam was sent for from Egypt by the malcontents (12:2,3). Rehoboam insolently refused to lighten the burdensome taxation and services which his father had imposed on his subjects (12:4), and the rebellion became complete. Ephraim and all Israel raised the old cry, 'Every man to his tents, O Israel' (2 Sam. 20:1). Rehoboam fled to Jerusalem (1 Kings 12:1-18; 2 Chr. 10), and Jeroboam was proclaimed king over all Israel at Shechem, Judah and Benjamin remaining faithful to Solomon's son. War, with varying success, was carried on between the two kingdoms for about sixty years, till Jehoshaphat entered into an alliance with the house of Ahab.

Issachar: hired (Gen. 30:18). 'God hath given me,' said Leah, 'my hire (Heb. sekhari)...and she called his name Issachar.' He was Jacob's ninth son, and was born in Padan-aram (comp. 28:2). He had four sons at the going down into Egypt (46:13; Num. 26:23, 25).

Italian band: the name of the Roman cohort to which Cornelius belonged (Acts 10:1), so called probably because it consisted of men recruited in Italy.

Italy: Acts 18:2; 27:1, 6; Heb. 13:24), like most geographical names, was differently used at different periods of history. As the power of Rome advanced, nations were successively conquered and added to it till it came to designate the whole country to the south of the Alps. There was constant intercourse between Palestine and Italy in the time of the Romans.

Ithamar: palm isle, the fourth and youngest son of Aaron (1 Chr. 6:3). He was consecrated to the priesthood along with his brothers (Ex. 6:23); and after the death of Nadab and Abihu, he and Eleazar alone discharged the functions of that office (Lev. 10:6, 12; Num. 3:4). He and his family occupied the position of common priest till the high priesthood passed into his family in the person of Eli (1 Kings 2:27), the reasons for which are not recorded. (See ZADOK.)

Ithrite: two of David's warriors so designated (2 Sam. 23:38; 1 Chr. 11:40).

Ittai: near; timely; or, with the Lord. (1.) A Benjamite, one of David's thirty heroes (2 Sam. 23:29).

Ibhar: chosen, one of David's sons (1 Chr. 3:6; 2 Sam. 5:15).

Ibleam: people-waster, a city assigned to Manasseh (Josh. 17:11), from which the Israelites, however, could not expel the Canaanites (Judg. 1:27). It is also called Bileam (1 Chr. 6:70). It was probably the modern Jelamah, a village 2 1/2 miles north of Jenin.

Ibzan: illustrious, the tenth judge of Israel (Judg. 12:8-10). He ruled seven years.

Ice: frequently mentioned (Job 6:16; 38:29; Ps. 147:17, etc.). (See CRYSTAL.)

Ichabod: When the tidings of the disastrous defeat of the Israelites in the battle against the Philistines near to Mizpeh were carried to Shiloh, the wife of Phinehas 'was near to be delivered. And when she heard the tidings that the ark of God was taken, and that her father-in-law and her husband were dead, she bowed herself and travailed' (1 Sam. 4:19-22). In her great distress she regarded not 'the women that stood by her,' but named the child that was born 'Ichabod' i.e., no glory, saying, 'The glory is departed from Isreal;' and with that word on her lips she expired.

Iconium: the capital of ancient Lycaonia. It was first visited by Paul and Barnabas from Antioch-in-Pisidia during the apostle's first missionary journey (Acts 13:50, 51). Here they were persecuted by the Jews, and being driven from the city, they fled to Lystra. They afterwards returned to Iconium, and encouraged the church which had been founded there (14:21,22). It was probably again visited by Paul during his third missionary journey along with Silas (18:23). It is the modern Konieh, at the foot of Mount Taurus, about 120 miles inland from the Mediterranean.

Idalah: snares(?), a city near the west border of Zebulun (Josh. 19:15). It has been identified with the modern Jeida, in the valley of Kishon.

Iddo: (1.) Timely (1 Chr. 6:21). A Gershonite Levite.

Idol: (1.) Heb. aven, 'nothingness;' 'vanity' (Isa. 66:3; 41:29; Deut. 32:21; 1 Kings 16:13; Ps. 31:6; Jer. 8:19, etc.).

Idolatry: image-worship or divine honour paid to any created object. Paul describes the origin of idolatry in Rom. 1:21-25: men forsook God, and sank into ignorance and moral corruption (1:28).

Idumaea: the Greek form of Edom (Isa. 34:5, 6; Ezek. 35:15; 36:5, but in R.V. 'Edom'). (See EDOM).

Igal: avengers. (1.) Num. 13:7, one of the spies of the tribe of Issachar. (2.) Son of Nathan of Zobah, and one of David's warriors (2 Sam. 23:36). (3.) 1 Chr. 3:22.

Iim: ruins. (1.) A city in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:29).

Ije-abarim: ruins of Abarim, the forty-seventh station of the Israelites in the wilderness, 'in the border of Moab' (Num. 33:44).

Ijon: a ruin, a city of Naphtali, captured by Ben-hadad of Syria at the instance of Asa (1 Kings 15:20), and afterwards by Tiglath-pileser of Assyria (2 Kings 15:29) in the reign of Pekah; now el-Khiam.

Ilai: an Ahohite, one of David's chief warriors (1 Chr. 11:29); called also Zalmon (2 Sam. 23:28).

Illyricum: a country to the north-west of Macedonia, on the eastern shores of the Adriatic, now almost wholly comprehended in Dalmatia, a name formerly given to the southern part of Illyricum (2 Tim. 4:10). It was traversed by Paul in his third missionary journey (Rom. 15:19). It was the farthest district he had reached in preaching the gospel of Christ. This reference to Illyricum is in harmony with Acts 20:2, inasmuch as the apostle's journey over the parts of Macedonia would bring him to the borders of Illyricum.

Imagery: only in the phrase 'chambers of his imagery' (Ezek. 8:12). (See CHAMBER.)

Ituraea: a district in the north-east of Palestine, forming, along with the adjacent territory of Trachonitis, the tetrarchy of Philip (Luke 3:1). The present Jedur comprehends the chief part of Ituraea. It is bounded on the east by Trachonitis, on the south by Gaulanitis, on the west by Hermon, and on the north by the plain of Damascus.

Ivah: overturning, a city of the Assyrians, whence colonists were brought to Samaria (2 Kings 18:34; 19:13). It lay on the Euphrates, between Sepharvaim and Henah, and is supposed by some to have been the Ahava of Ezra (8:15).

Ivory: (Heb. pl. shenhabbim, the 'tusks of elephants') was early used in decorations by the Egyptians, and a great trade in it was carried on by the Assyrians (Ezek. 27:6; Rev. 18:12). It was used by the Phoenicians to ornament the box-wood rowing-benches of their galleys, and Hiram's skilled workmen made Solomon's throne of ivory (1 Kings 10:18). It was brought by the caravans of Dedan (Isa. 21:13), and from the East Indies by the navy of Tarshish (1 Kings 10:22). Many specimens of ancient Egyptian and Assyrian ivory-work have been preserved. The word _habbim_ is derived from the Sanscrit _ibhas_, meaning 'elephant,' preceded by the Hebrew article (ha); and hence it is argued that Ophir, from which it and the other articles mentioned in 1 Kings 10:22 were brought, was in India.

Izhar: oil, one of the sons of Kohath, and grandson of Levi (Ex. 6:18, 21; Num. 16:1).

Izrahite: the designation of one of David's officers (1 Chr. 27:8).