Bible Dictionary


Jachin and Boaz: the names of two brazen columns set up in Solomon's temple (1 Kings 7:15-22). Each was eighteen cubits high and twelve in circumference (Jer. 52:21, 23; 1 Kings 7:17-21). They had doubtless a symbolical import.

Jacinth: properly a flower of a reddish blue or deep purple (hyacinth), and hence a precious stone of that colour (Rev. 21:20). It has been supposed to designate the same stone as the ligure (Heb. leshem) mentioned in Ex. 28:19 as the first stone of the third row in the high priest's breast-plate. In Rev. 9:17 the word is simply descriptive of colour.

Jacob: one who follows on another's heels; supplanter, (Gen. 25:26; 27:36; Hos. 12:2-4), the second born of the twin sons of Isaac by Rebekah. He was born probably at Lahai-roi, when his father was fifty-nine and Abraham one hundred and fifty-nine years old. Like his father, he was of a quiet and gentle disposition, and when he grew up followed the life of a shepherd, while his brother Esau became an enterprising hunter. His dealing with Esau, however, showed much mean selfishness and cunning (Gen. 25:29-34).

Jacob's Well: (John 4:5, 6). This is one of the few sites in Palestine about which there is no dispute. It was dug by Jacob, and hence its name, in the 'parcel of ground' which he purchased from the sons of Hamor (Gen. 33:19). It still exists, but although after copious rains it contains a little water, it is now usually quite dry. It is at the entrance to the valley between Ebal and Gerizim, about 2 miles south-east of Shechem. It is about 9 feet in diameter and about 75 feet in depth, though in ancient times it was no doubt much deeper, probably twice as deep. The digging of such a well must have been a very laborious and costly undertaking.

Jaddua: known. (1.) One of the chiefs who subscribed the covenant (Neh. 10:21).

Jadon: judge, a Meronothite who assisted in rebuilding the walls of Jerusalem (Neh. 3:7).

Jael: mountain-goat, the wife of Heber the Kenite (Judg. 4:17-22). When the Canaanites were defeated by Barak, Sisera, the captain of Jabin's army, fled and sought refuge with the friendly tribe of Heber, beneath the oaks of Zaanaim. As he drew near, Jael invited him to enter her tent. He did so, and as he lay wearied on the floor he fell into a deep sleep. She then took in her left hand one of the great wooden pins ('nail') which fastened down the cords of the tent, and in her right hand the mallet, or 'hammer,' used for driving it into the ground, and stealthily approaching her sleeping guest, with one well-directed blow drove the nail through his temples into the earth (Judg. 5:27). She then led Barak, who was in pursuit, into her tent, and boastfully showed him what she had done. (See SISERA; DEBORAH.)

Jagur: place of sojourn, a city on the southern border of Judah (Josh. 15:21).

Jah: a contraction for Jehovah (Ps. 68:4).

Jahath: union. (1.) A son of Shimei, and grandson of Gershom (1 Chr. 23:10).

Jahaz: trodden down (called also Jahaza, Josh. 13:18; Jahazah, 21:36; Jahzah, 1 Chr. 6:78), a town where Sihon was defeated, in the borders of Moab and in the land of the Ammonites beyond Jordan, and north of the river Arnon (Num. 21:23; Deut. 2:32). It was situated in the tribe of Reuben, and was assigned to the Merarite Levites (Josh. 13:18; 21:36). Here was fought the decisive battle in which Sihon (q.v.) was completely routed, and his territory (the modern Belka) came into the possession of Israel. This town is mentioned in the denunciations of the prophets against Moab (Isa. 15:4; Jer. 48:34).

Jahaziel: beheld by God. (1.) The third son of Hebron (1 Chr. 23:19).

Jahdai: grasper, a descendant of Caleb, of the family of Hezron (1 Chr. 2:47).

Jahzeel: allotted by God, the first of the sons of Naphtali (Gen. 46:24).

Jahzerah: returner, the son of Meshullam, and father of Adiel (1 Chr. 9:12).

Jailer: (of Philippi), Acts 16:23. The conversion of the Roman jailer, a man belonging to a class 'insensible as a rule and hardened by habit, and also disposed to despise the Jews, who were the bearers of the message of the gospel,' is one of those cases which illustrate its universality and power.

Jair: enlightener. (1.) The son of Segub. He was brought up with his mother in Gilead, where he had possessions (1 Chr. 2:22). He distinguished himself in an expedition against Bashan, and settled in the part of Argob on the borders of Gilead. The small towns taken by him there are called Havoth-jair, i.e., 'Jair's villages' (Num. 32:41; Deut. 3:14; Josh. 13:30).

Jairus: a ruler of the synagogue at Capernaum, whose only daughter Jesus restored to life (Mark 5:22; Luke 8:41). Entering into the chamber of death, accompanied by Peter and James and John and the father and mother of the maiden, he went forward to the bed whereon the corpse lay, and said, Talitha cumi, i.e., 'Maid, arise,' and immediately the spirit of the maiden came to her again, and she arose straightway; and 'at once to strengthen that life which had come back to her, and to prove that she was indeed no ghost, but had returned to the realities of a mortal existence, he commanded to give her something to eat' (Mark 5:43).

Jakeh: pious, the father of Agur (Prov. 30:1). Nothing is known of him.

Jakim: establisher. (1.) Chief of the twelfth priestly order (1 Chr. 24:12).

Jalon: lodger, the last of the four sons of Ezra, of the tribe of Judah (1 Chr. 4:17).

Jambres: one of those who opposed Moses in Egypt (2 Tim. 3:8). (See JANNES.)

James: (1.) The son of Zebedee and Salome; an elder brother of John the apostle. He was one of the twelve. He was by trade a fisherman, in partnership with Peter (Matt. 20:20; 27:56). With John and Peter he was present at the transfiguration (Matt. 17:1; Mark 9:2), at the raising of Jairus's daughter (Mark 5:37-43), and in the garden with our Lord (14:33). Because, probably, of their boldness and energy, he and John were called Boanerges, i.e., 'sons of thunder.' He was the first martyr among the apostles, having been beheaded by King Herod Agrippa (Acts 12:1, 2), A.D. 44. (Comp. Matt. 4:21; 20:20-23).

James, Epistle of: (1.) Author of, was James the Less, the Lord's brother, one of the twelve apostles. He was one of the three pillars of the Church (Gal. 2:9).

Jannes: one of the Egyptians who 'withstood Moses' (2 Tim. 3:8).

Janoah: or Jano'hah, rest. (1.) A town on the north-eastern border of Ephraim, in the Jordan valley (Josh. 16:6, 7). Identified with the modern Yanun, 8 miles south-east of Nablus.

Janum: slumber, a town in the mountains of Judah (Josh. 15:53).

Japheth: wide spreading: 'God shall enlarge Japheth' (Heb. Yaphat Elohim le-Yephet, Gen. 9:27. Some, however, derive the name from _yaphah_, 'to be beautiful;' hence white), one of the sons of Noah, mentioned last in order (Gen. 5:32; 6:10; 7:13), perhaps first by birth (10:21; comp. 9:24). He and his wife were two of the eight saved in the ark (1 Pet. 3:20). He was the progenitor of many tribes inhabiting the east of Europe and the north of Asia (Gen. 10:2-5). An act of filial piety (9:20-27) was the occasion of Noah's prophecy of the extension of his posterity.

Japhia: splendid. (1.) The king of Lachish, who joined in the confederacy against Joshua (Josh. 10:3), and was defeated and slain. In one of the Amarna tablets he speaks of himself as king of Gezer. Called also Horam (Josh. 10:33).

Japho: beauty, a sea-port in Dan (Josh. 19:46); called Joppa (q.v.) in 2 Chr. 2:16; Ezra 3:7; Jonah 1:3; and in New Testament.

Jared: descent. (1.) The fourth antediluvian patriarch in descent from Seth (Gen. 5:15-20; Luke 3:37), the father of Enoch; called Jered in 1 Chr. 1:2.

Jarib: an adversary. (1.) A son of Simeon (1 Chr. 4:24).

Jaakan: he twists, one of the sons of Ezer, the son of Seir the Horite (1 Chr. 1:42).

Jaakobah: heel-catcher, a form of the name Jacob, one of the descendants of Simeon (1 Chr. 4:36).

Jaala: a wild she-goat, one of the Nethinim, whose descendants returned from the Captivity (Neh. 7:58).

Jaalam: concealer, the second of Esau's three sons by Aholibamah (Gen. 36:5, 14).

Jaanai: mourner, one of the chief Gadites (1 Chr. 5:12).

Jaare-oregim: forests of the weavers, a Bethlehemite (2 Sam. 21:19), and the father of Elhanan, who slew Goliath. In 1 Chr. 20:5 called JAIR.

Jaasau: fabricator, an Israelite who renounced his Gentile wife after the Return (Ezra 10:37).

Jaasiel: made by God, one of David's body-guard, the son of Abner (1 Chr. 27:21), called Jasiel in 1 Chr. 11:47.

Jaaz-aniah: heard by Jehovah. (1.) The son of Jeremiah, and one of the chief Rechabites (Jer. 35:3).

Jaazer: he (God) helps, a city of the Amorites on the east of Jordan, and assigned, with neighbouring places in Gilead, to Gad (Num. 32:1, 35; Josh. 13:25). It was allotted to the Merarite Levites (21:39). In David's time it was occupied by the Hebronites, i.e., the descendants of Kohath (1 Chr. 26:31). It is mentioned in the 'burdens' proclaimed over Moab (Isa. 16:8, 9; Jer. 48:32). Its site is marked by the modern ruin called Sar or Seir, about 10 miles west of Amman, and 12 from Heshbon. 'The vineyards that once covered the hill-sides are gone; and the wild Bedawin from the eastern desert make cultivation of any kind impossible.'

Jaaziah: comforted by Jehovah, a descendant of Merari the Levite (1 Chr. 24:26,27).

Jaaziel: comforted by God, a Levitical musician (1 Chr. 15:18).

Jabal: a stream, a descendant of Cain, and brother of Jubal; 'the father of such as dwell in tents and have cattle' (Gen. 4:20). This description indicates that he led a wandering life.

Jabbok: a pouring out, or a wrestling, one of the streams on the east of Jordan, into which it falls about midway between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, or about 45 miles below the Sea of Galilee. It rises on the eastern side of the mountains of Gilead, and runs a course of about 65 miles in a wild and deep ravine. It was the boundary between the territory of the Ammonites and that of Og, king of Bashan (Josh. 12:1-5; Num. 21:24); also between the tribe of Reuben and the half tribe of Manasseh (21:24; Deut. 3:16). In its course westward across the plains it passes more than once underground. 'The scenery along its banks is probably the most picturesque in Palestine; and the ruins of town and village and fortress which stud the surrounding mountain-side render the country as interesting as it is beautiful.' This river is now called the Zerka, or blue river.

Jabesh: dry. (1.) For Jabesh-Gilead (1 Sam. 11:3,9,10).

Jabesh-Gilead: a town on the east of Jordan, on the top of one of the green hills of Gilead, within the limits of the half tribe of Manasseh, and in full view of Beth-shan. It is first mentioned in connection with the vengeance taken on its inhabitants because they had refused to come up to Mizpeh to take part with Israel against the tribe of Benjamin (Judg. 21:8-14). After the battles at Gibeah, that tribe was almost extinguished, only six hundred men remaining. An expedition went against Jabesh-Gilead, the whole of whose inhabitants were put to the sword, except four hundred maidens, whom they brought as prisoners and sent to 'proclaim peace' to the Benjamites who had fled to the crag Rimmon. These captives were given to them as wives, that the tribe might be saved from extinction (Judg. 21).

Jabez: affiction. (1.) A descendant of Judah, of whom it is recorded that 'God granted him that which he requested' (1 Chr. 4:9, 10).

Jabin: discerner; the wise. (1.) A king of Hazor, at the time of the entrance of Israel into Canaan (Josh. 11:1-14), whose overthrow and that of the northern chief with whom he had entered into a confederacy against Joshua was the crowning act in the conquest of the land (11:21-23; comp. 14:6-15). This great battle, fought at Lake Merom, was the last of Joshua's battles of which we have any record. Here for the first time the Israelites encountered the iron chariots and horses of the Canaanites.

Jabneel: built by God. (1.) A town in the north boundary of Judah (Josh. 15:11), called afterwards by the Greeks Jamnia, the modern Yebna, 11 miles south of Jaffa. After the fall of Jerusalem (A.D. 70), it became one of the most populous cities of Judea, and the seat of a celebrated school.

Jabneh: building, (2 Chr. 26:6), identical with Jabneel (Josh. 15:11).

Jachan: mourner, one of the chief Gadite 'brothers' in Bashan (1 Chr. 5:13).

Jachin: firm. (1.) The fourth son of Simeon (Gen. 46:10), called also Jarib (1 Chr. 4:24).

Jarmuth: height. (1.) A town in the plain of Judah (Josh. 15:35), originally the residence of one of the Canaanitish kings (10:3, 5, 23). It has been identified with the modern Yarmuk, a village about 7 miles north-east of Beit-Jibrin.

Jashen: sleeping, called also Hashem (1 Chr. 11:34); a person, several of whose sons were in David's body-guard (2 Sam. 23:32).

Jasher: upright. 'The Book of Jasher,' rendered in the LXX. 'the Book of the Upright One,' by the Vulgate 'the Book of Just Ones,' was probably a kind of national sacred song-book, a collection of songs in praise of the heroes of Israel, a 'book of golden deeds,' a national anthology. We have only two specimens from the book, (1) the words of Joshua which he spake to the Lord at the crisis of the battle of Beth-horon (Josh. 10:12, 13); and (2) 'the Song of the Bow,' that beautiful and touching mournful elegy which David composed on the occasion of the death of Saul and Jonathan (2 Sam. 1:18-27).

Jashobeam: dweller among the people; or to whom the people turn, the Hachmonite (1 Chr. 11:11), one of David's chief heroes who joined him at Ziklag (12:6). He was the first of the three who broke through the host of the Philistines to fetch water to David from the well of Bethlehem (2 Sam. 23:13-17). He is also called Adino the Eznite (8).

Jashub: returner. (1.) The third of Issachar's four sons (1 Chr. 7:1); called also Job (Gen. 46:13).

Jason: he that will cure, the host of Paul and Silas in Thessalonica. The Jews assaulted his house in order to seize Paul, but failing to find him, they dragged Jason before the ruler of the city (Acts 17:5-9). He was apparently one of the kinsmen of Paul (Rom. 16:21), and accompanied him from Thessalonica to Corinth.

Jasper: (Heb. yashpheh, 'glittering'), a gem of various colours, one of the twelve inserted in the high priest's breast-plate (Ex. 28:20). It is named in the building of the New Jerusalem (Rev. 21:18, 19). It was 'most precious,' 'clear as crystal' (21:11). It was emblematic of the glory of God (4:3).

Jattir: pre-eminent, a city in the mountains of Judah (Josh. 15:48; 21:14).

Javan: (1.) The fourth 'son' of Japheth (Gen. 10:2), whose descendants settled in Greece, i.e., Ionia, which bears the name of Javan in Hebrew. Alexander the Great is called the 'king of Javan' (rendered 'Grecia,' Dan. 8:21; 10:20; comp. 11:2; Zech. 9:13). This word was universally used by the nations of the East as the generic name of the Greek race.

Javelin: (1.) Heb. hanith, a lance, from its flexibility (1 Sam. 18:10, 11; 19:9, 10; 20:33).

Jaw-bone: of an ass afforded Samson a weapon for the great slaughter of the Philistines (Judg. 15.15), in which he slew a thousand men. In verse 19 the Authorized Version reads, 'God clave a hollow place that was in the jaw, and there came water thereout.' This is a mis-translation of the words. The rendering should be as in the Revised Version, 'God clave the hollow place that is in Lehi,' etc., Lehi (q.v.) being the name of the hill where this conflict was waged, possibly so called because it was in shape like a jaw-bone.

Jealousy: suspicion of a wife's purity, one of the strongest passions (Num. 5:14; Prov. 6:34; Cant. 8:6); also an intense interest for another's honour or prosperity (Ps. 79:5; 1 Cor. 10:22; Zech. 1:14).

Jealousy offering: the name of the offering the husband was to bring when he charged his wife with adultery (Num. 5:11-15).

Jealousy, Image of: an idolatrous object, seen in vision by Ezekiel (Ezek. 8:3, 5), which stood in the priests' or inner court of the temple. Probably identical with the statue of Astarte (2 Kings 21:7).

Jealousy, Waters of: water which the suspected wife was required to drink, so that the result might prove her guilt or innocence (Num. 5:12-17, 27). We have no record of this form of trial having been actually resorted to.

Jearim: forests, a mountain on the border of Judah (Josh. 15:10).

Jebus: trodden hard, or fastness, or 'the waterless hill', the name of the Canaanitish city which stood on Mount Zion (Josh. 15:8; 18:16, 28). It is identified with Jerusalem (q.v.) in Judg. 19:10, and with the castle or city of David (1 Chr. 11:4,5). It was a place of great natural strength, and its capture was one of David's most brilliant achievements (2 Sam. 5:8).

Jebusites: the name of the original inhabitants of Jebus, mentioned frequently among the seven nations doomed to destruction (Gen. 10:16; 15:21; Ex. 3:8, 17; 13:5, etc.). At the time of the arrival of the Israelites in Palestine they were ruled by Adonizedek (Josh. 10:1, 23). They were defeated by Joshua, and their king was slain; but they were not entirely driven out of Jebus till the time of David, who made it the capital of his kingdom instead of Hebron. The site on which the temple was afterwards built belonged to Araunah, a Jebusite, from whom it was purchased by David, who refused to accept it as a free gift (2 Sam. 24:16-25; 1 Chr. 21:24, 25).

Jecoliah: able through Jehovah, the wife of King Amaziah, and mother of King Uzziah (2 Chr. 26:3).

Jedaiah: (1.) Invoker of Jehovah. The son of Shimri, a chief Simeonite (1 Chr. 4:37).

Jediael: known by God. (1.) One of the sons of Benjamin, whose descendants numbered 17,200 warriors (1 Chr. 7:6, 10, 11).

Jedidiah: beloved by Jehovah, the name which, by the mouth of Nathan, the Lord gave to Solomon at his birth as a token of the divine favour (2 Sam. 12:25).

Jeduthun: lauder; praising, a Levite of the family of Merari, and one of the three masters of music appointed by David (1 Chr. 16:41, 42; 25:1-6). He is called in 2 Chr. 35:15 'the king's seer.' His descendants are mentioned as singers and players on instruments (Neh. 11:17). He was probably the same as Ethan (1 Chr. 15:17, 19). In the superscriptions to Ps. 39, 62, and 77, the words 'upon Jeduthun' probably denote a musical instrument; or they may denote the style or tune invented or introduced by Jeduthun, or that the psalm was to be sung by his choir.

Jegar-sahadutha: pile of testimony, the Aramaic or Syriac name which Laban gave to the pile of stones erected as a memorial of the covenant between him and Jacob (Gen. 31:47), who, however, called it in Hebrew by an equivalent name, Galeed (q.v.).

Jehaleleel: praiser of God. (1.) A descendant of Judah (1 Chr. 4:16).

Jehdeiah: rejoicer in Jehovah. (1.) One of the Levitical attendants at the temple, a descendant of Shubael (1 Chr. 24:20).

Jehiel: God's living one. (1.) The father of Gibeon (1 Chr. 9:35).

Jehizkiah: Jehovah strengthens, one of the chiefs of Ephraim (2 Chr. 28:12).

Jehoaddan: Jehovah his ornament, the wife of King Jehoash, and mother of King Amaziah (2 Kings 14:2).

Jehoahaz: Jehovah his sustainer, or he whom Jehovah holdeth. (1.) The youngest son of Jehoram, king of Judah (2 Chr. 21:17; 22:1, 6, 8, 9); usually Ahaziah (q.v.).

Jehoash: Jehovah-given. (1.) The son of King Ahaziah. While yet an infant, he was saved from the general massacre of the family by his aunt Jehosheba, and was apparently the only surviving descendant of Solomon (2 Chr. 21:4, 17). His uncle, the high priest Jehoiada, brought him forth to public notice when he was eight years of age, and crowned and anointed him king of Judah with the usual ceremonies. Athaliah was taken by surprise when she heard the shout of the people, 'Long live the king;' and when she appeared in the temple, Jehoiada commanded her to be led forth to death (2 Kings 11:13-20). While the high priest lived, Jehoash favoured the worship of God and observed the law; but on his death he fell away into evil courses, and the land was defiled with idolatry. Zechariah, the son and successor of the high priest, was put to death. These evil deeds brought down on the land the judgement of God, and it was oppressed by the Syrian invaders. He is one of the three kings omitted by Matthew (1:8) in the genealogy of Christ, the other two being Ahaziah and Amaziah. He was buried in the city of David (2 Kings 12:21). (See JOASH [4].)

Jehohanan: Jehovah-granted, Jeroboam II. (1.) A Korhite, the head of one of the divisions of the temple porters (1 Chr. 26:3).

Jehoiachin: succeeded his father Jehoiakin (B.C. 599) when only eight years of age, and reigned for one hundred days (2 Chr. 36:9). He is also called Jeconiah (Jer. 24:1; 27:20, etc.), and Coniah (22:24; 37:1). He was succeeded by his uncle, Mattaniah = Zedekiah (q.v.). He was the last direct heir to the Jewish crown. He was carried captive to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar, along with the flower of the nobility, all the leading men in Jerusalem, and a great body of the general population, some thirteen thousand in all (2 Kings 24:12-16; Jer. 52:28). After an imprisonment of thirty-seven years (Jer. 52:31, 33), he was liberated by Evil-merodach, and permitted to occupy a place in the king's household and sit at his table, receiving 'every day a portion until the day of his death, all the days of his life' (52:32-34).

Jehoiada: Jehovah-known. (1.) The father of Benaiah, who was one of David's chief warriors (2 Sam. 8:18; 20:23).

Jehoiakim: he whom Jehovah has set up, the second son of Josiah, and eighteenth king of Judah, which he ruled over for eleven years (B.C. 610-599). His original name was Eliakim (q.v.).

Jehoiarib: Jehovah defends, a priest at Jerusalem, head of one of the sacerdotal courses (1 Chr. 9:10; 24:7). His 'course' went up from Babylon after the Exile (Ezra 2:36-39; Neh. 7:39-42).

Jehonadab: Jehovah is liberal; or, whom Jehovah impels. (1.) A son of Shimeah, and nephew of David. It was he who gave the fatal wicked advice to Amnon, the heir to the throne (2 Sam. 13:3-6). He was very 'subtil,' but unprincipled.

Jehonathan: whom Jehovah gave. (1.) One of the stewards of David's store-houses (1 Chr. 27:25).

Jehoram: Jehovah-exalted. (1.) Son of Toi, king of Hamath, sent by his father to congratulate David on the occasion of his victory over Hadadezer (2 Sam. 8:10).

Jehoshaphat: Jehovah-judged. (1.) One of David's body-guard (1 Chr. 11:43).

Jehoshaphat, Valley of: mentioned in Scripture only in Joel 3:2, 12. This is the name given in modern times to the valley between Jerusalem and the Mount of Olives, and the Kidron flows through it. Here Jehoshaphat overthrew the confederated enemies of Israel (Ps. 83:6-8); and in this valley also God was to overthrow the Tyrians, Zidonians, etc. (Joel 3:4, 19), with an utter overthrow. This has been fulfilled; but Joel speaks of the final conflict, when God would destroy all Jerusalem's enemies, of whom Tyre and Zidon, etc., were types. The 'valley of Jehoshaphat' may therefore be simply regarded as a general term for the theatre of God's final judgments on the enemies of Israel.

Jehosheba: Jehovah-swearing, the daughter of Jehoram, the king of Israel. She is called Jehoshabeath in 2 Chr. 22:11. She was the only princess of the royal house who was married to a high priest, Jehoiada (2 Chr. 22:11).

Jehovah: the special and significant name (not merely an appellative title such as Lord [adonai]) by which God revealed himself to the ancient Hebrews (Ex. 6:2, 3). This name, the Tetragrammaton of the Greeks, was held by the later Jews to be so sacred that it was never pronounced except by the high priest on the great Day of Atonement, when he entered into the most holy place. Whenever this name occurred in the sacred books they pronounced it, as they still do, 'Adonai' (i.e., Lord), thus using another word in its stead. The Massorets gave to it the vowel-points appropriate to this word. This Jewish practice was founded on a false interpretation of Lev. 24:16. The meaning of the word appears from Ex. 3:14 to be 'the unchanging, eternal, self-existent God,' the 'I am that I am,' a convenant-keeping God. (Comp. Mal. 3:6; Hos. 12:5; Rev. 1:4, 8.)

Jehovah-jireh: Jehovah will see; i.e., will provide, the name given by Abraham to the scene of his offering up the ram which was caught in the thicket on Mount Moriah. The expression used in Gen. 22:14, 'in the mount of the Lord it shall be seen,' has been regarded as equivalent to the saying, 'Man's extremity is God's opportunity.'

Jehovah-nissi: Jehovah my banner, the title given by Moses to the altar which he erected on the hill on the top of which he stood with uplifted hands while Israel prevailed over their enemies the Amalekites (Ex. 17:15).

Jehovah-shalom: Jehovah send peace, the name which Gideon gave to the altar he erected on the spot at Ophrah where the angel appeared to him (Judg. 6:24).

Jehovah-shammah: Jehovah is there, the symbolical title given by Ezekiel to Jerusalem, which was seen by him in vision (Ezek. 48:35). It was a type of the gospel Church.

Jehovah-tsidkenu: Jehovah our rightousness, rendered in the Authorized Version, 'The LORD our righteousness,' a title given to the Messiah (Jer. 23:6, marg.), and also to Jerusalem (33:16, marg.).

Jehozabad: Jehovah-given. (1.) The son of Obed-edom (1 Chr. 26:4), one of the Levite porters.

Jehozadak: Jehovah-justified, the son of the high priest Seraiah at the time of the Babylonian exile (1 Chr. 6:14, 15). He was carried into captivity by Nebuchadnezzar, and probably died in Babylon. He was the father of Jeshua, or Joshua, who returned with Zerubbabel.

Jehu: Jehovah is he. (1.) The son of Obed, and father of Azariah (1 Chr. 2:38).

Jehucal: able, the son of Shelemiah. He is also called Jucal (Jer. 38:1). He was one of the two persons whom Zedekiah sent to request the prophet Jeremiah to pray for the kingdom (Jer. 37:3) during the time of its final siege by Nebuchadnezzar. He was accompanied by Zephaniah (q.v.).

Jehudi: a Jew, son of Nethaniah. He was sent by the princes to invite Baruch to read Jeremiah's roll to them (Jer. 36:14, 21).

Jeiel: snatched away by God. (1.) A descendant of Benjamin (1 Chr. 9:35; 8:29).

Jemima: dove, the eldest of Job's three daughters born after his time of trial (Job 42:14).

Jephthah: whom God sets free, or the breaker through, a 'mighty man of valour' who delivered Israel from the oppression of the Ammonites (Judg. 11:1-33), and judged Israel six years (12:7). He has been described as 'a wild, daring, Gilead mountaineer, a sort of warrior Elijah.' After forty-five years of comparative quiet Israel again apostatized, and in 'process of time the children of Ammon made war against Israel' (11:5). In their distress the elders of Gilead went to fetch Jephthah out of the land of Tob, to which he had fled when driven out wrongfully by his brothers from his father's inheritance (2), and the people made him their head and captain. The 'elders of Gilead' in their extremity summoned him to their aid, and he at once undertook the conduct of the war against Ammon. Twice he sent an embassy to the king of Ammon, but in vain. War was inevitable. The people obeyed his summons, and 'the spirit of the Lord came upon him.' Before engaging in war he vowed that if successful he would offer as a 'burnt-offering' whatever would come out of the door of his house first to meet him on his return. The defeat of the Ammonites was complete. 'He smote them from Aroer, even till thou come to Minnith, even twenty cities, and unto the plain of the vineyards [Heb. 'Abel Keramim], with a very great slaughter' (Judg. 11:33). The men of Ephraim regarded themselves as insulted in not having been called by Jephthah to go with him to war against Ammon. This led to a war between the men of Gilead and Ephraim (12:4), in which many of the Ephraimites perished. (See SHIBBOLETH.) 'Then died Jephthah the Gileadite, and was buried in one of the cities of Gilead' (7).

Jephthah's vow: (Judg. 11:30, 31). After a crushing defeat of the Ammonites, Jephthah returned to his own house, and the first to welcome him was his own daughter. This was a terrible blow to the victor, and in his despair he cried out, 'Alas, my daughter! thou hast brought me very low...I have opened my mouth unto the Lord, and cannot go back.' With singular nobleness of spirit she answered, 'Do to me according to that which hath proceeded out of thy mouth.' She only asked two months to bewail her maidenhood with her companions upon the mountains. She utters no reproach against her father's rashness, and is content to yield her life since her father has returned a conqueror. But was it so? Did Jephthah offer up his daughter as a 'burnt-offering'? This question has been much debated, and there are many able commentators who argue that such a sacrifice was actually offered. We are constrained, however, by a consideration of Jephthah's known piety as a true worshipper of Jehovah, his evident acquaintance with the law of Moses, to which such sacrifices were abhorrent (Lev. 18:21; 20:2-5; Deut. 12:31), and the place he holds in the roll of the heroes of the faith in the Epistle to the Hebrews (11:32), to conclude that she was only doomed to a life of perpetual celibacy.

Jephunneh: nimble, or a beholder. (1.) The father of Caleb, who was Joshua's companion in exploring Canaan (Num. 13:6), a Kenezite (Josh. 14:14). (2.) One of the descendants of Asher (1 Chr. 7:38).

Jerahmeel: loving God. (1.) The son of Hezron, the brother of Caleb (1 Chr. 2:9, 25, 26, etc.).

Jeremiah: raised up or appointed by Jehovah. (1.) A Gadite who joined David in the wilderness (1 Chr. 12:10).

Jeremiah, Book of: consists of twenty-three separate and independent sections, arranged in five books. I. The introduction, ch. 1. II. Reproofs of the sins of the Jews, consisting of seven sections, (1.) ch. 2; (2.) ch. 3-6; (3.) ch. 7-10; (4.) ch. 11-13; (5.) ch. 14-17:18; (6.) ch. 17:19-ch. 20; (7.) ch. 21-24. III. A general review of all nations, in two sections, (1.) ch. 46-49; (2.) ch. 25; with an historical appendix of three sections, (1.) ch. 26; (2.) ch. 27; (3.) ch. 28, 29. IV. Two sections picturing the hopes of better times, (1.) ch. 30, 31; (2.) ch. 32,33; to which is added an historical appendix in three sections, (1.) ch. 34:1-7; (2.) ch. 34:8-22; (3.) ch. 35. V. The conclusion, in two sections, (1.) ch. 36; (2.) ch. 45.

Jericho: place of fragrance, a fenced city in the midst of a vast grove of palm trees, in the plain of Jordan, over against the place where that river was crossed by the Israelites (Josh. 3:16). Its site was near the 'Ain es-Sultan, Elisha's Fountain (2 Kings 2:19-22), about 5 miles west of Jordan. It was the most important city in the Jordan valley (Num. 22:1; 34:15), and the strongest fortress in all the land of Canaan. It was the key to Western Palestine.

Jerimoth: heights. (1.) One of the sons of Bela (1 Chr. 7:7).

Jeroboam: increase of the people. (1.) The son of Nebat (1 Kings 11:26-39), 'an Ephrathite,' the first king of the ten tribes, over whom he reigned twenty-two years (B.C. 976-945). He was the son of a widow of Zereda, and while still young was promoted by Solomon to be chief superintendent of the 'burnden', i.e., of the bands of forced labourers. Influenced by the words of the prophet Ahijah, he began to form conspiracies with the view of becoming king of the ten tribes; but these having been discovered, he fled to Egypt (1 Kings 11:29-40), where he remained for a length of time under the protection of Shishak I. On the death of Solomon, the ten tribes, having revolted, sent to invite him to become their king. The conduct of Rehoboam favoured the designs of Jeroboam, and he was accordingly proclaimed 'king of Israel' (1 Kings 12: 1-20). He rebuilt and fortified Shechem as the capital of his kingdom. He at once adopted means to perpetuate the division thus made between the two parts of the kingdom, and erected at Dan and Bethel, the two extremities of his kingdom, 'golden calves,' which he set up as symbols of Jehovah, enjoining the people not any more to go up to worship at Jerusalem, but to bring their offerings to the shrines he had erected. Thus he became distinguished as the man 'who made Israel to sin.' This policy was followed by all the succeeding kings of Israel.

Jeroham: cherished; who finds mercy. (1.) Father of Elkanah, and grandfather of the prophet Samuel (1 Sam. 1:1).

Jerubbaal: contender with Baal; or, let Baal plead, a surname of Gideon; a name given to him because he destroyed the altar of Baal (Judg. 6:32; 7:1; 8:29; 1 Sam. 12:11).

Jerubbesheth: contender with the shame; i.e., idol, a surname also of Gideon (2 Sam. 11:21).

Jeruel: founded by God, a 'desert' on the ascent from the valley of the Dead Sea towards Jerusalem. It lay beyond the wilderness of Tekoa, in the direction of Engedi (2 Chr. 20:16, 20). It corresponds with the tract of country now called el-Hasasah.

Jerusalem: called also Salem, Ariel, Jebus, the 'city of God,' the 'holy city;' by the modern Arabs el-Khuds, meaning 'the holy;' once 'the city of Judah' (2 Chr. 25:28). This name is in the original in the dual form, and means 'possession of peace,' or 'foundation of peace.' The dual form probably refers to the two mountains on which it was built, viz., Zion and Moriah; or, as some suppose, to the two parts of the city, the 'upper' and the 'lower city.' Jerusalem is a 'mountain city enthroned on a mountain fastness' (comp. Ps. 68:15, 16; 87:1; 125:2; 76:1, 2; 122:3). It stands on the edge of one of the highest table-lands in Palestine, and is surrounded on the south-eastern, the southern, and the western sides by deep and precipitous ravines.

Jerusha: possession, or possessed; i.e., 'by a husband', the wife of Uzziah, and mother of king Jotham (2 Kings 15:33).

Jeshaiah: deliverance of Jehovah. (1.) A Kohathite Levite, the father of Joram, of the family of Eliezer (1 Chr. 26:25); called also Isshiah (24:21).

Jeshanah: a city of the kingdom of Israel (2 Chr. 13:19).

Jesharelah: upright towards God, the head of the seventh division of Levitical musicians (1 Chr. 25:14).

Jeshebeab: seat of his father, the head of the fourteenth division of priests (1 Chr. 24:13).

Jesher: uprightness, the first of the three sons of Caleb by Azubah (1 Chr. 2:18).

Jeshimon: the waste, probably some high waste land to the south of the Dead Sea (Num. 21:20; 23:28; 1 Sam. 23:19, 24); or rather not a proper name at all, but simply 'the waste' or 'wilderness,' the district on which the plateau of Ziph (q.v.) looks down.

Jeshua: (1.) Head of the ninth priestly order (Ezra 2:36); called also Jeshuah (1 Chr. 24:11).

Jeshurun: a poetical name for the people of Israel, used in token of affection, meaning, 'the dear upright people' (Deut. 32:15; 33:5, 26; Isa. 44:2).

Jesse: firm, or a gift, a son of Obed, the son of Boaz and Ruth (Ruth 4:17, 22; Matt. 1:5, 6; Luke 3:32). He was the father of eight sons, the youngest of whom was David (1 Sam. 17:12). The phrase 'stem of Jesse' is used for the family of David (Isa. 11:1), and 'root of Jesse' for the Messiah (Isa. 11:10; Rev. 5:5). Jesse was a man apparently of wealth and position at Bethlehem (1 Sam. 17:17, 18, 20; Ps. 78:71). The last reference to him is of David's procuring for him an asylum with the king of Moab (1 Sam. 22:3).

Jesus: (1.) Joshua, the son of Nun (Acts 7:45; Heb. 4:8; R.V., 'Joshua').

Jether: surplus; excellence. (1.) Father-in-law of Moses (Ex. 4:18 marg.), called elsewhere Jethro (q.v.).

Jetheth: a peg, or a prince, one of the Edomitish kings of Mount Seir (Gen. 36:40).

Jethlah: suspended; high, a city on the borders of Dan (Josh. 19:42).

Jethro: his excellence, or gain, a prince or priest of Midian, who succeeded his father Reuel. Moses spent forty years after his exile from the Egyptian court as keeper of Jethro's flocks. While the Israelites were encamped at Sinai, and soon after their victory over Amalek, Jethro came to meet Moses, bringing with him Zipporah and her two sons. They met at the 'mount of God,' and 'Moses told him all that the Lord had done unto Pharaoh' (Ex. 18:8). On the following day Jethro, observing the multiplicity of the duties devolving on Moses, advised him to appoint subordinate judges, rulers of thousands, of hundreds, of fifties, and of tens, to decide smaller matters, leaving only the weightier matters to be referred to Moses, to be laid before the Lord. This advice Moses adopted (Ex. 18). He was also called Hobab (q.v.), which was probably his personal name, while Jethro was an official name. (See MOSES.)

Jetur: an enclosure, one of the twelve sons of Ishmael (Gen. 25:15).

Jeuel: snatched away by God, a descendant of Zerah (1 Chr. 9:6).

Jeush: assembler. (1.) The oldest of Esau's three sons by Aholibamah (Gen. 36:5, 14, 18).

Jew: the name derived from the patriarch Judah, at first given to one belonging to the tribe of Judah or to the separate kingdom of Judah (2 Kings 16:6; 25:25; Jer. 32:12; 38:19; 40:11; 41:3), in contradistinction from those belonging to the kingdom of the ten tribes, who were called Israelites.

Jewess: a woman of Hebrew birth, as Eunice, the mother of Timothy (Acts 16:1; 2 Tim. 1:5), and Drusilla (Acts 24:24), wife of Felix, and daughter of Herod Agrippa I.

Jezebel: chaste, the daughter of Ethbaal, the king of the Zidonians, and the wife of Ahab, the king of Israel (1 Kings 16:31). This was the 'first time that a king of Israel had allied himself by marriage with a heathen princess; and the alliance was in this case of a peculiarly disastrous kind. Jezebel has stamped her name on history as the representative of all that is designing, crafty, malicious, revengeful, and cruel. She is the first great instigator of persecution against the saints of God. Guided by no principle, restrained by no fear of either God or man, passionate in her attachment to her heathen worship, she spared no pains to maintain idolatry around her in all its splendour. Four hundred and fifty prophets ministered under her care to Baal, besides four hundred prophets of the groves [R.V., 'prophets of the Asherah'], which ate at her table (1 Kings 18:19). The idolatry, too, was of the most debased and sensual kind.' Her conduct was in many respects very disastrous to the kingdom both of Israel and Judah (21:1-29). At length she came to an untimely end. As Jehu rode into the gates of Jezreel, she looked out at the window of the palace, and said, 'Had Zimri peace, who slew his master?' He looked up and called to her chamberlains, who instantly threw her from the window, so that she was dashed in pieces on the street, and his horses trod her under their feet. She was immediately consumed by the dogs of the street (2 Kings 9:7-37), according to the word of Elijah the Tishbite (1 Kings 21:19).

Jeziel: assembled by God, a son of Azmaveth. He was one of the Benjamite archers who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:3).

Jezreel: God scatters. (1.) A town of Issachar (Josh. 19:18), where the kings of Israel often resided (1 Kings 18:45; 21:1; 2 Kings 9:30). Here Elijah met Ahab, Jehu, and Bidkar; and here Jehu executed his dreadful commission against the house of Ahab (2 Kings 9:14-37; 10:1-11). It has been identified with the modern Zerin, on the most western point of the range of Gilboa, reaching down into the great and fertile valley of Jezreel, to which it gave its name.

Jezreel, Blood of: the murder perpetrated here by Ahab and Jehu (Hos. 1:4; comp. 1 Kings 18:4; 2 Kings 9:6-10).

Jezreel, Day of: the time predicted for the execution of vengeance for the deeds of blood committed there (Hos. 1:5).

Jezreel, Ditch of: (1 Kings 21:23; comp. 13), the fortification surrounding the city, outside of which Naboth was executed.

Jezreel, Fountain of: where Saul encamped before the battle of Gilboa (1 Sam. 29:1). In the valley under Zerin there are two considerable springs, one of which, perhaps that here referred to, 'flows from under a sort of cavern in the wall of conglomerate rock which here forms the base of Gilboa. The water is excellent; and issuing from crevices in the rocks, it spreads out at once into a fine limpid pool forty or fifty feet in diameter, full of fish' (Robinson). This may be identical with the 'well of Harod' (Judg. 7:1; comp. 2 Sam. 23:25), probably the 'Ain Jalud, i.e., the 'spring of Goliath.'

Jezreel, Portion of: the field adjoining the city (2 Kings 9:10, 21, 36, 37). Here Naboth was stoned to death (1 Kings 21:13).

Jezreel, Tower of: one of the turrets which guarded the entrance to the city (2 Kings 9:17).

Jezreel, Valley of: lying on the northern side of the city, between the ridges of Gilboa and Moreh, an offshoot of Esdraelon, running east to the Jordan (Josh. 17:16; Judg. 6:33; Hos. 1:5). It was the scene of the signal victory gained by the Israelites under Gideon over the Midianites, the Amalekites, and the 'children of the east' (Judg. 6:3). Two centuries after this the Israelites were here defeated by the Philistines, and Saul and Jonathan, with the flower of the army of Israel, fell (1 Sam. 31:1-6).

Joab: Jehovah is his father. (1.) One of the three sons of Zeruiah, David's sister, and 'captain of the host' during the whole of David's reign (2 Sam. 2:13; 10:7; 11:1; 1 Kings 11:15). His father's name is nowhere mentioned, although his sepulchre at Bethlehem is mentioned (2 Sam. 2:32). His two brothers were Abishai and Asahel, the swift of foot, who was killed by Abner (2 Sam. 2:13-32), whom Joab afterwards treacherously murdered (3:22-27). He afterwards led the assault at the storming of the fortress on Mount Zion, and for this service was raised to the rank of 'prince of the king's army' (2 Sam. 5:6-10; 1 Chr. 27:34). His chief military achievements were, (1) against the allied forces of Syria and Ammon; (2) against Edom (1 Kings 11:15, 16); and (3) against the Ammonites (2 Sam. 10:7-19; 11:1, 11). His character is deeply stained by the part he willingly took in the murder of Uriah (11:14-25). He acted apparently from a sense of duty in putting Absalom to death (18:1-14). David was unmindful of the many services Joab had rendered to him, and afterwards gave the command of the army to Amasa, Joab's cousin (2 Sam. 20:1-13; 19:13). When David was dying Joab espoused the cause of Adonijah in preference to that of Solomon. He was afterwards slain by Benaiah, by the command of Solomon, in accordance with his father's injunction (2 Sam. 3:29; 20:5-13), at the altar to which he had fled for refuge. Thus this hoary conspirator died without one to lift up a voice in his favour. He was buried in his own property in the 'wilderness,' probably in the north-east of Jerusalem (1 Kings 2:5, 28-34). Benaiah succeeded him as commander-in-chief of the army.

Joah: Jehovah his brother; i.e., helper. (1.) One of the sons of Obed-edom (1 Chr. 26:4), a Korhite porter.

Joahaz: (2 Chr. 34:8), a contracted form of Jehoahaz (q.v.).

Jozabad: whom Jehovah bestows. (1.) One of the Benjamite archers who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:4).

Jozachar: Jehovah-remembered, one of the two servants who assassinated Jehoash, the king of Judah, in Millo (2 Kings 12:21). He is called also Zabad (2 Chr. 24:26).

Jubal: jubilee, music, Lamech's second son by Adah, of the line of Cain. He was the inventor of 'the harp' (Heb. kinnor, properly 'lyre') and 'the organ' (Heb. 'ugab, properly 'mouth-organ' or Pan's pipe), Gen. 4:21.

Jubilee: a joyful shout or clangour of trumpets, the name of the great semi-centennial festival of the Hebrews. It lasted for a year. During this year the land was to be fallow, and the Israelites were only permitted to gather the spontaneous produce of the fields (Lev. 25:11, 12). All landed property during that year reverted to its original owner (13-34; 27:16-24), and all who were slaves were set free (25:39-54), and all debts were remitted.

Juda: (1.) The patriarch Judah, son of Jacob (Luke 3:33; Heb. 7:14). In Luke 1:39; Heb. 7:14; Rev. 5:5; 7:5, the word refers to the tribe of Judah.

Judah: praise, the fourth son of Jacob by Leah. The name originated in Leah's words of praise to the Lord on account of his birth: 'Now will I praise [Heb. odeh] Jehovah, and she called his name Yehudah' (Gen. 29:35).

Judah upon Jordan: The Authorized Version, following the Vulgate, has this rendering in Josh. 19:34. It has been suggested that, following the Masoretic punctuation, the expression should read thus, 'and Judah; the Jordan was toward the sun-rising.' The sixty cities (Havoth-jair, Num. 32:41) on the east of Jordan were reckoned as belonging to Judah, because Jair, their founder, was a Manassite only on his mother's side, but on his father's side of the tribe of Judah (1 Chr. 2:5, 21-23).

Judah, Kingdom of: When the disruption took place at Shechem, at first only the tribe of Judah followed the house of David. But very soon after the tribe of Benjamin joined the tribe of Judah, and Jerusalem became the capital of the new kingdom (Josh. 18:28), which was called the kingdom of Judah. It was very small in extent, being only about the size of the Scottish county of Perth.

Judah, Tribe of: Judah and his three surviving sons went down with Jacob into Egypt (Gen. 46:12; Ex. 1:2). At the time of the Exodus, when we meet with the family of Judah again, they have increased to the number of 74,000 males (Num. 1:26, 27). Its number increased in the wilderness (26:22). Caleb, the son of Jephunneh, represented the tribe as one of the spies (13:6; 34:19). This tribe marched at the van on the east of the tabernacle (Num. 2:3-9; 10:14), its standard, as is supposed, being a lion's whelp. Under Caleb, during the wars of conquest, they conquered that portion of the country which was afterwards assigned to them as their inheritance. This was the only case in which any tribe had its inheritance thus determined (Josh. 14:6-15; 15:13-19).

Judas: the Graecized form of Judah. (1.) The patriarch (Matt. 1:2, 3).

Jude: = Judas. Among the apostles there were two who bore this name, (1) Judas (Jude 1:1; Matt. 13:55; John 14:22; Acts 1:13), called also Lebbaeus or Thaddaeus (Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:18); and (2) Judas Iscariot (Matt. 10:4; Mark 3:19). He who is called 'the brother of James' (Luke 6:16), may be the same with the Judas surnamed Lebbaeus. The only thing recorded regarding him is in John 14:22.

Jude, Epistle of: The author was 'Judas, the brother of James' the Less (Jude 1:1), called also Lebbaeus (Matt. 10:3) and Thaddaeus (Mark 3:18). The genuineness of this epistle was early questioned, and doubts regarding it were revived at the time of the Reformation; but the evidences in support of its claims are complete. It has all the marks of having proceeded from the writer whose name it bears.

Judea: After the Captivity this name was applied to the whole of the country west of the Jordan (Hag. 1:1, 14; 2:2). But under the Romans, in the time of Christ, it denoted the southernmost of the three divisions of Palestine (Matt. 2:1, 5; 3:1; 4:25), although it was also sometimes used for Palestine generally (Acts 28:21).

Judge: (Heb. shophet, pl. shophetim), properly a magistrate or ruler, rather than one who judges in the sense of trying a cause. This is the name given to those rulers who presided over the affairs of the Israelites during the interval between the death of Joshua and the accession of Saul (Judg. 2:18), a period of general anarchy and confusion. 'The office of judges or regents was held during life, but it was not hereditary, neither could they appoint their successors. Their authority was limited by the law alone, and in doubtful cases they were directed to consult the divine King through the priest by Urim and Thummim (Num. 27:21). Their authority extended only over those tribes by whom they had been elected or acknowledged. There was no income attached to their office, and they bore no external marks of dignity. The only cases of direct divine appointment are those of Gideon and Samson, and the latter stood in the peculiar position of having been from before his birth ordained 'to begin to deliver Israel.' Deborah was called to deliver Israel, but was already a judge. Samuel was called by the Lord to be a prophet but not a judge, which ensued from the high gifts the people recognized as dwelling in him; and as to Eli, the office of judge seems to have devolved naturally or rather ex officio upon him.' Of five of the judges, Tola (Judg. 10:1), Jair (3), Ibzan, Elon, and Abdon (12:8-15), we have no record at all beyond the bare fact that they were judges. Sacred history is not the history of individuals but of the kingdom of God in its onward progress.

Judges, Book of: is so called because it contains the history of the deliverance and government of Israel by the men who bore the title of the 'judges.' The book of Ruth originally formed part of this book, but about A.D. 450 it was separated from it and placed in the Hebrew scriptures immediately after the Song of Solomon.

Judgment hall: Gr. praitorion (John 18:28, 33; 19:9; Matt. 27:27), 'common hall.' In all these passages the Revised Version renders 'palace.' In Mark 15:16 the word is rendered 'Praetorium' (q.v.), which is a Latin word, meaning literally the residence of the praetor, and then the governor's residence in general, though not a praetor. Throughout the Gospels the word 'praitorion' has this meaning (comp. Acts 23:35). Pilate's official residence when he was in Jerusalem was probably a part of the fortress of Antonia.

Judgment seat: (Matt. 27:19), a portable tribunal (Gr. bema) which was placed according as the magistrate might direct, and from which judgment was pronounced. In this case it was placed on a tesselated pavement, probably in front of the procurator's residence. (See GABBATHA.)

Judgment, The final: the sentence that will be passed on our actions at the last day (Matt. 25; Rom. 14:10, 11; 2 Cor. 5:10; 2 Thess. 1:7-10).

Judgments of God: (1.) The secret decisions of God's will (Ps. 110:5; 36:6). (2.) The revelations of his will (Ex. 21:1; Deut. 6:20; Ps. 119:7-175). (3.) The infliction of punishment on the wicked (Ex. 6:6; 12:12; Ezek. 25:11; Rev. 16:7), such as is mentioned in Gen. 7; 19:24,25; Judg. 1:6,7; Acts 5:1-10, etc.

Judith: Jewess, the daughter of Beeri the Hittite, and one of Esau's wives (Gen. 26:34), elsewhere called Aholibamah (36:2-14).

Julia: a Christian woman at Rome to whom Paul sent his salutations (Rom. 16:15), supposed to be the wife of Philologus.

Julius: the centurion of the Augustan cohort, or the emperor's body-guard, in whose charge Paul was sent prisoner to Rome (Acts 27:1, 3, 43). He entreated Paul 'courteously,' showing in many ways a friendly regard for him.

Junia: (Rom. 16:7), a Christian at Rome to whom Paul sends salutations along with Andronicus.

Juniper: (Heb. rothem), called by the Arabs retem, and known as Spanish broom; ranked under the genus genista. It is a desert shrub, and abounds in many parts of Palestine. In the account of his journey from Akabah to Jerusalem, Dr. Robinson says: 'This is the largest and most conspicuous shrub of these deserts, growing thickly in the water-courses and valleys. Our Arabs always selected the place of encampment, if possible, in a spot where it grew, in order to be sheltered by it at night from the wind; and during the day, when they often went on in advance of the camels, we found them not unfrequently sitting or sleeping under a bush of retem to shelter them from the sun. It was in this very desert, a day's journey from Beersheba, that the prophet Elijah lay down and slept beneath the same shrub' (1 Kings 19:4, 5). It afforded material for fuel, and also in cases of extremity for human food (Ps. 120:4; Job 30:4). One of the encampments in the wilderness of Paran is called Rithmah, i.e., 'place of broom' (Num. 33:18).

Jupiter: the principal deity of the ancient Greeks and Romans. He was worshipped by them under various epithets. Barnabas was identified with this god by the Lycaonians (Acts 14:12), because he was of stately and commanding presence, as they supposed Jupiter to be. There was a temple dedicated to this god outside the gates of Lystra (14:13).

Justice: is rendering to every one that which is his due. It has been distinguished from equity in this respect, that while justice means merely the doing what positive law demands, equity means the doing of what is fair and right in every separate case.

Justice of God: that perfection of his nature whereby he is infinitely righteous in himself and in all he does, the righteousness of the divine nature exercised in his moral government. At first God imposes righteous laws on his creatures and executes them righteously. Justice is not an optional product of his will, but an unchangeable principle of his very nature. His legislative justice is his requiring of his rational creatures conformity in all respects to the moral law. His rectoral or distributive justice is his dealing with his accountable creatures according to the requirements of the law in rewarding or punishing them (Ps. 89:14). In remunerative justice he distributes rewards (James 1:12; 2 Tim. 4:8); in vindictive or punitive justice he inflicts punishment on account of transgression (2 Thess. 1:6). He cannot, as being infinitely righteous, do otherwise than regard and hate sin as intrinsically hateful and deserving of punishment. 'He cannot deny himself' (2 Tim. 2:13). His essential and eternal righteousness immutably determines him to visit every sin as such with merited punishment.

Justification: a forensic term, opposed to condemnation. As regards its nature, it is the judicial act of God, by which he pardons all the sins of those who believe in Christ, and accounts, accepts, and treats them as righteous in the eye of the law, i.e., as conformed to all its demands. In addition to the pardon (q.v.) of sin, justification declares that all the claims of the law are satisfied in respect of the justified. It is the act of a judge and not of a sovereign. The law is not relaxed or set aside, but is declared to be fulfilled in the strictest sense; and so the person justified is declared to be entitled to all the advantages and rewards arising from perfect obedience to the law (Rom. 5:1-10).

Justus: (1.) Another name for Joseph, surnamed Barsabas. He and Matthias are mentioned only in Acts 1:23. 'They must have been among the earliest disciples of Jesus, and must have been faithful to the end; they must have been well known and esteemed among the brethren. What became of them afterwards, and what work they did, are entirely unknown' (Lindsay's Acts of the Apostles).

Juttah: extended, a Levitical city in the mountains or hill-country of Judah (Josh. 15:55; 21:16). Its modern name is Yutta, a place about 5 1/2 miles south of Hebron. It is supposed to have been the residence of Zacharias and Elisabeth, and the birthplace of John the Baptist, and on this account is annually visited by thousands of pilgrims belonging to the Greek Church (Luke 1:39). (See MARY.)

Joanna: whom Jehovah has graciously given. (1.) The grandson of Zerubbabel, in the lineage of Christ (Luke 3:27); the same as Hananiah (1 Chr. 3:19).

Joash: whom Jehovah bestowed. (1.) A contracted form of Jehoash, the father of Gideon (Judg. 6:11, 29; 8:13, 29, 32).

Job: persecuted, an Arabian patriarch who resided in the land of Uz (q.v.). While living in the midst of great prosperity, he was suddenly overwhelmed by a series of sore trials that fell upon him. Amid all his sufferings he maintained his integrity. Once more God visited him with the rich tokens of his goodness and even greater prosperity than he had enjoyed before. He survived the period of trial for one hundred and forty years, and died in a good old age, an example to succeeding generations of integrity (Ezek. 14:14, 20) and of submissive patience under the sorest calamities (James 5:11). His history, so far as it is known, is recorded in his book.

Job, Book of: A great diversity of opinion exists as to the authorship of this book. From internal evidence, such as the similarity of sentiment and language to those in the Psalms and Proverbs (see Ps. 88 and 89), the prevalence of the idea of 'wisdom,' and the style and character of the composition, it is supposed by some to have been written in the time of David and Solomon. Others argue that it was written by Job himself, or by Elihu, or Isaiah, or perhaps more probably by Moses, who was 'learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, and mighty in words and deeds' (Acts 7:22). He had opportunities in Midian for obtaining the knowledge of the facts related. But the authorship is altogether uncertain.

Jobab: dweller in the desert. (1.) One of the sons of Joktan, and founder of an Arabian tribe (Gen. 10:29). (2.) King of Edom, succeeded Bela (Gen. 36:33, 34). (3.) A Canaanitish king (Josh. 11:1) who joined the confederacy against Joshua.

Jochebed: Jehovah is her glory, the wife of Amram, and the mother of Miriam, Aaron, and Moses (Num. 26:59). She is spoken of as the sister of Kohath, Amram's father (Ex. 6:20; comp. 16, 18; 2:1-10).

Joel: Jehovah is his God. (1.) The oldest of Samuel's two sons appointed by him as judges in Beersheba (1 Sam. 8:2). (See VASHNI (n/a).) (2.) A descendant of Reuben (1 Chr. 5:4,8). (3.) One of David's famous warriors (1 Chr. 11:38). (4.) A Levite of the family of Gershom (1 Chr. 15:7, 11). (5.) 1 Chr. 7:3. (6.) 1 Chr. 27:20. (7.) The second of the twelve minor prophets. He was the son of Pethuel. His personal history is only known from his book.

Joel, Book of: Joel was probably a resident in Judah, as his commission was to that people. He makes frequent mention of Judah and Jerusalem (1:14; 2:1, 15, 32; 3:1, 12, 17, 20, 21).

Joelah: a Benjamite who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:7).

Joezer: Jehovah is his help, one of the Korhites who became part of David's body-guard (1 Chr. 12:6).

Johanan: whom Jehovah graciously bestows. (1.) One of the Gadite heroes who joined David in the desert of Judah (1 Chr. 12:12).

John: (1.) One who, with Annas and Caiaphas, sat in judgment on the apostles Peter and John (Acts 4:6). He was of the kindred of the high priest; otherwise unknown.

John the Baptist: the 'forerunner of our Lord.' We have but fragmentary and imperfect accounts of him in the Gospels. He was of priestly descent. His father, Zacharias, was a priest of the course of Abia (1 Chr. 24:10), and his mother, Elisabeth, was of the daughters of Aaron (Luke 1:5). The mission of John was the subject of prophecy (Matt. 3:3; Isa. 40:3; Mal. 3:1). His birth, which took place six months before that of Jesus, was foretold by an angel. Zacharias, deprived of the power of speech as a token of God's truth and a reproof of his own incredulity with reference to the birth of his son, had the power of speech restored to him on the occasion of his circumcision (Luke 1:64). After this no more is recorded of him for thirty years than what is mentioned in Luke 1:80. John was a Nazarite from his birth (Luke 1:15; Num. 6:1-12). He spent his early years in the mountainous tract of Judah lying between Jerusalem and the Dead Sea (Matt. 3:1-12).

John, First Epistle of: the fourth of the catholic or 'general' epistles. It was evidently written by John the evangelist, and probably also at Ephesus, and when the writer was in advanced age. The purpose of the apostle (1:1-4) is to declare the Word of Life to those to whom he writes, in order that they might be united in fellowship with the Father and his Son Jesus Christ. He shows that the means of union with God are, (1) on the part of Christ, his atoning work (1:7; 2:2; 3:5; 4:10, 14; 5:11, 12) and his advocacy (2:1); and (2), on the part of man, holiness (1:6), obedience (2:3), purity (3:3), faith (3:23; 4:3; 5:5), and love (2:7, 8; 3:14; 4:7; 5:1).

John, Gospel of: The genuineness of this Gospel, i.e., the fact that the apostle John was its author, is beyond all reasonable doubt. In recent times, from about 1820, many attempts have been made to impugn its genuineness, but without success.

John, Second Epistle of: is addressed to 'the elect lady,' and closes with the words, 'The children of thy elect sister greet thee;' but some would read instead of 'lady' the proper name Kyria. Of the thirteen verses composing this epistle seven are in the First Epistle. The person addressed is commended for her piety, and is warned against false teachers.

John, Third Epistle of: is addressed to Caius, or Gaius, but whether to the Christian of that name in Macedonia (Acts 19: 29) or in Corinth (Rom. 16:23) or in Derbe (Acts 20:4) is uncertain. It was written for the purpose of commending to Gaius some Christians who were strangers in the place where he lived, and who had gone thither for the purpose of preaching the gospel (ver. 7).

Joiada: (whom Jehovah favours) = Jehoiada. (1.) Neh. 3:6. (2.) One of the high priests (12:10, 11, 22).

Joiakim: (whom Jehovah has set up) = Jehoiakim, a high priest, the son and successor of Jeshua (Neh. 12:10, 12, 26).

Joiarib: (whom Jehovah defends) = Jehoiarib. (1.) The founder of one of the courses of the priests (Neh. 11:10).

Jokdeam: a city in the mountains of Judah (Josh. 15:56).

Jokim: whom Jehovah has set up, one of the descendants of Shelah (1 Chr. 4:22).

Jokmeam: gathering of the people, a city of Ephraim, which was given with its suburbs to the Levites (1 Chr. 6:68). It lay somewhere in the Jordan valley (1 Kings 4:12, R.V.; but in A.V. incorrectly 'Jokneam').

Jokneam: gathered by the people, (Josh. 19:11; 21:34), a city 'of Carmel' (12:22), i.e., on Carmel, allotted with its suburbs to the Merarite Levites. It is the modern Tell Kaimon, about 12 miles south-west of Nazareth, on the south of the river Kishon.

Jokshan: snarer, the second son of Abraham and Keturah (Gen. 25:2, 3; 1 Chr. 1:32).

Joktan: little, the second of the two sons of Eber (Gen. 10:25; 1 Chr. 1:19). There is an Arab tradition that Joktan (Arab. Kahtan) was the progenitor of all the purest tribes of Central and Southern Arabia.

Joktheel: subdued by God. (1.) A city of Judah near Lachish (Josh. 15, 38). Perhaps the ruin Kutlaneh, south of Gezer.

Jonadab: =Jehon'adab. (1.) The son of Rechab, and founder of the Rechabites (q.v.), 2 Kings 10:15; Jer. 35:6, 10.

Jonah: a dove, the son of Amittai of Gath-hepher. He was a prophet of Israel, and predicted the restoration of the ancient boundaries (2 Kings 14:25-27) of the kingdom. He exercised his ministry very early in the reign of Jeroboam II., and thus was contemporary with Hosea and Amos; or possibly he preceded them, and consequently may have been the very oldest of all the prophets whose writings we possess. His personal history is mainly to be gathered from the book which bears his name. It is chiefly interesting from the two-fold character in which he appears, (1) as a missionary to heathen Nineveh, and (2) as a type of the 'Son of man.'

Jonah, Book of: This book professes to give an account of what actually took place in the experience of the prophet. Some critics have sought to interpret the book as a parable or allegory, and not as a history. They have done so for various reasons. Thus (1) some reject it on the ground that the miraculous element enters so largely into it, and that it is not prophetical but narrative in its form; (2) others, denying the possibility of miracles altogether, hold that therefore it cannot be true history.

Jonas: (1.) Greek form of Jonah (Matt. 12:39, 40, 41, etc.).

Jonath-elem-rechokim: dove of the dumbness of the distance; i.e., 'the silent dove in distant places', title of Ps. 56. This was probably the name of some well known tune or melody to which the psalm was to be sung.

Jonathan: whom Jehovah gave, the name of fifteen or more persons that are mentioned in Scripture. The chief of these are, (1.) A Levite descended from Gershom (Judg. 18:30). His history is recorded in 17:7-13 and 18:30. The Rabbins changed this name into Manasseh 'to screen the memory of the great lawgiver from the stain of having so unworthy an apostate among his near descendants.' He became priest of the idol image at Dan, and this office continued in his family till the Captivity.

Joppa: beauty, a town in the portion of Dan (Josh. 19:46; A.V., 'Japho'), on a sandy promontory between Caesarea and Gaza, and at a distance of 30 miles north-west from Jerusalem. It is one of the oldest towns in Asia. It was and still is the chief sea-port of Judea. It was never wrested from the Phoenicians. It became a Jewish town only in the second century B.C. It was from this port that Jonah 'took ship to flee from the presence of the Lord' (Jonah 1:3). To this place also the wood cut in Lebanon by Hiram's men for Solomon was brought in floats (2 Chr. 2:16); and here the material for the building of the second temple was also landed (Ezra 3:7). At Joppa, in the house of Simon the tanner, 'by the sea-side,' Peter resided 'many days,' and here, 'on the house-top,' he had his 'vision of tolerance' (Acts 9:36-43). It bears the modern name of Jaffa, and exibituds all the decrepitude and squalor of cities ruled over by the Turks. 'Scarcely any other town has been so often overthrown, sacked, pillaged, burned, and rebuilt.' Its present population is said to be about 16,000. It was taken by the French under Napoleon in 1799, who gave orders for the massacre here of 4,000 prisoners. It is connected with Jerusalem by the only carriage road that exists in the country, and also by a railway completed in 1892. It is noticed on monuments B.C. 1600-1300, and was attacked by Sannacharib B.C. 702.

Joram: =Jeho'ram. (1.) One of the kings of Israel (2 Kings 8:16, 25, 28). He was the son of Ahab.

Jordan: Heb. Yarden, 'the descender;' Arab. Nahr-esh-Sheriah, 'the watering-place' the chief river of Palestine. It flows from north to south down a deep valley in the centre of the country. The name descender is significant of the fact that there is along its whole course a descent to its banks; or it may simply denote the rapidity with which it 'descends' to the Dead Sea.

Joseph: remover or increaser. (1.) The elder of the two sons of Jacob by Rachel (Gen. 30:23, 24), who, on the occasion of his birth, said, 'God hath taken away [Heb. 'asaph] my reproach.' 'The Lord shall add [Heb. yoseph] to me another son' (Gen. 30:24). He was a child of probably six years of age when his father returned from Haran to Canaan and took up his residence in the old patriarchal town of Hebron. 'Now Israel loved Joseph more than all his children, because he was the son of his old age,' and he 'made him a long garment with sleeves' (Gen. 37:3, R.V. marg.), i.e., a garment long and full, such as was worn by the children of nobles. This seems to be the correct rendering of the words. The phrase, however, may also be rendered, 'a coat of many pieces', i.e., a patchwork of many small pieces of divers colours.

Joshua: Jehovah is his help, or Jehovah the Saviour. The son of Nun, of the tribe of Ephraim, the successor of Moses as the leader of Israel. He is called Jehoshua in Num. 13:16 (A.V.), and Jesus in Acts 7:45 and Heb. 4:8 (R.V., Joshua).

Joshua, The Book of: contains a history of the Israelites from the death of Moses to that of Joshua. It consists of three parts: (1.) The history of the conquest of the land (1-12). (2.) The allotment of the land to the different tribes, with the appointment of cities of refuge, the provision for the Levites (13-22), and the dismissal of the eastern tribes to their homes. This section has been compared to the Domesday Book of the Norman conquest. (3.) The farewell addresses of Joshua, with an account of his death (23, 24).

Josiah: healed by Jehovah, or Jehovah will support. The son of Amon, and his successor on the throne of Judah (2 Kings 22:1; 2 Chr. 34:1). His history is contained in 2 Kings 22, 23. He stands foremost among all the kings of the line of David for unswerving loyalty to Jehovah (23:25). He 'did that which was right in the sight of the Lord, and walked in all the way of David his father.' He ascended the throne at the early age of eight years, and it appears that not till eight years afterwards did he begin 'to seek after the God of David his father.' At that age he devoted himself to God. He distinguished himself by beginning a war of extermination against the prevailing idolatry, which had practically been the state religion for some seventy years (2 Chr. 34:3; comp. Jer. 25:3, 11, 29).

Jot: or Iota, the smallest letter of the Greek alphabet, used metaphorically or proverbially for the smallest thing (Matt. 5:18); or it may be = yod, which is the smallest of the Hebrew letters.

Jotham: Jehovah is perfect. (1.) The youngest of Gideon's seventy sons. He escaped when the rest were put to death by the order of Abimelech (Judg. 9:5). When 'the citizens of Shechem and the whole house of Millo' were gathered together 'by the plain of the pillar' (i.e., the stone set up by Joshua, 24:26; comp. Gen. 35:4) 'that was in Shechem, to make Abimelech king,' from one of the heights of Mount Gerizim he protested against their doing so in the earliest parable, that of the bramble-king. His words then spoken were prophetic. There came a recoil in the feelings of the people toward Abimelech, and then a terrible revenge, in which many were slain and the city of Shechem was destroyed by Abimelech (Judg. 9:45). Having delivered his warning, Jotham fled to Beer from the vengeance of Abimelech (9:7-21).

Journey: (1.) A day's journey in the East is from 16 to 20 miles (Num. 11:31).