Bible Dictionary


Laban: white. (1.) The son of Bethuel, who was the son of Nahor, Abraham's brother. He lived at Haran in Mesopotamia. His sister Rebekah was Isaac's wife (Gen. 24). Jacob, one of the sons of this marriage, fled to the house of Laban, whose daughters Leah and Rachel (ch. 29) he eventually married. (See JACOB

Lachish: impregnable, a royal Canaanitish city in the Shephelah, or maritime plain of Palestine (Josh. 10:3, 5; 12:11). It was taken and destroyed by the Israelites (Josh. 10:31-33). It afterwards became, under Rehoboam, one of the strongest fortresses of Judah (2 Chr. 10:9). It was assaulted and probably taken by Sennacherib (2 Kings 18:14, 17; 19:8; Isa. 36:2). An account of this siege is given on some slabs found in the chambers of the palace of Koyunjik, and now in the British Museum. The inscription has been deciphered as follows:, 'Sennacherib, the mighty king, king of the country of Assyria, sitting on the throne of judgment before the city of Lachish: I gave permission for its slaughter.' (See NINEVEH.)

Ladder: occurs only once, in the account of Jacob's vision (Gen. 28:12).

Laish: a lion. (1.) A city of the Sidonians, in the extreme north of Palestine (Judg. 18:7, 14); called also Leshem (Josh. 19:47) and Dan (Judg. 18:7, 29; Jer. 8:16). It lay near the sources of the Jordan, about 4 miles from Paneas. The restless and warlike tribe of Dan (q.v.), looking out for larger possessions, invaded this country and took Laish with its territory. It is identified with the ruin Tell-el-Kady, 'the mound of the judge,' to the north of the Waters of Merom (Josh. 11:5).

Lama: (Matt. 27:46), a Hebrew word meaning why, quoted from Ps. 22:1.

Lamb: (1.) Heb. kebes, a male lamb from the first to the third year. Offered daily at the morning and the evening sacrifice (Ex. 29:38-42), on the Sabbath day (Num. 28:9), at the feast of the New Moon (28:11), of Trumpets (29:2), of Tabernacles (13-40), of Pentecost (Lev. 23:18-20), and of the Passover (Ex. 12:5), and on many other occasions (1 Chr. 29:21; 2 Chr. 29:21; Lev. 9:3; 14:10-25).

Lamech: the strikerdown; the wild man. (1.) The fifth in descent from Cain. He was the first to violate the primeval ordinance of marriage (Gen. 4:18-24). His address to his two wives, Adah and Zillah (4:23, 24), is the only extant example of antediluvian poetry. It has been called 'Lamech's sword-song.' He was 'rude and ruffianly,' fearing neither God nor man. With him the curtain falls on the race of Cain. We know nothing of his descendants.

Lamentation: (Heb. qinah), an elegy or dirge. The first example of this form of poetry is the lament of David over Saul and Jonathan (2 Sam. 1:17-27). It was a frequent accompaniment of mourning (Amos 8:10). In 2 Sam. 3:33, 34 is recorded David's lament over Abner. Prophecy sometimes took the form of a lament when it predicted calamity (Ezek. 27:2, 32; 28:12; 32:2, 16).

Lamentations, Book of: called in the Hebrew canon _'Ekhah_, meaning 'How,' being the formula for the commencement of a song of wailing. It is the first word of the book (see 2 Sam. 1:19-27). The LXX. adopted the name rendered 'Lamentations' (Gr. threnoi = Heb. qinoth) now in common use, to denote the character of the book, in which the prophet mourns over the desolations brought on the city and the holy land by Chaldeans. In the Hebrew Bible it is placed among the Khethubim. (See BIBLE.)

Lamp: (1.) That part of the candle-sticks of the tabernacle and the temple which bore the light (Ex. 25:37; 1 Kings 7:49; 2 Chr. 4:20; 13:11; Zech. 4:2). Their form is not described. Olive oil was generally burned in them (Ex. 27:20).

Landmark: a boundary line indicated by a stone, stake, etc. (Deut. 19:14; 27:17; Prov. 22:28; 23:10; Job 24:2). Landmarks could not be removed without incurring the severe displeasure of God.

Laodicea: The city of this name mentioned in Scripture lay on the confines of Phrygia and Lydia, about 40 miles east of Ephesus (Rev. 3:14), on the banks of the Lycus. It was originally called Diospolis and then Rhoas, but afterwards Laodicea, from Laodice, the wife of Antiochus II., king of Syria, who rebuilt it. It was one of the most important and flourishing cities of Asia Minor. At a very early period it became one of the chief seats of Christianity (Col. 2:1; 4:15; Rev. 1:11, etc.). It is now a deserted place, called by the Turks Eski-hissar or 'old castle.'

Laodicea, Epistle from: (Col. 4:16), was probably the Epistle to the Ephesians, as designed for general circulation. It would reach the Colossians by way of Laodicea.

Lapidoth: torches. Deborah is called 'the wife of Lapidoth' (Judg. 4:4). Some have rendered the expression 'a woman of a fiery spirit,' under the supposition that Lapidoth is not a proper name, a woman of a torch-like spirit.

Lapping: of water like a dog, i.e., by putting the hand filled with water to the mouth. The dog drinks by shaping the end of his long thin tongue into the form of a spoon, thus rapidly lifting up water, which he throws into his mouth. The three hundred men that went with Gideon thus employed their hands and lapped the water out of their hands (Judg. 7:7).

Lapwing: the name of an unclean bird, mentioned only in Lev. 11:19 and Deut. 14:18. The Hebrew name of this bird, _dukiphath_, has been generally regarded as denoting the hoope (Upupa epops), an onomatopoetic word derived from the cry of the bird, which resembles the word 'hoop;' a bird not uncommon in Palestine. Others identify it with the English peewit.

Lasaea: a city in the island of Crete (Acts 27:8). Its ruins are still found near Cape Leonda, about 5 miles east of 'Fair Havens.'

Lasha: fissure, a place apparently east of the Dead Sea (Gen. 10:19). It was afterwards known as Callirhoe, a place famous for its hot springs.

Latchet: a thong (Acts 22:25), cord, or strap fastening the sandal on the foot (Isa. 5:27; Mark 1:7; Luke 3:16).

Latin: the vernacular language of the ancient Romans (John 19:20).

Lattice: (1.) Heb. 'eshnabh, a latticed opening through which the cool breeze passes (Judg. 5:28). The flat roofs of the houses were sometimes enclosed with a parapet of lattice-work on wooden frames, to screen the women of the house from the gaze of the neighbourhood.

Laver: (Heb. kiyor), a 'basin' for boiling in, a 'pan' for cooking (1 Sam. 2:14), a 'fire-pan' or hearth (Zech. 12:6), the sacred wash-bowl of the tabernacle and temple (Ex. 30:18, 28; 31:9; 35:16; 38:8; 39:39; 40:7, 11, 30, etc.), a basin for the water used by the priests in their ablutions.

Law: a rule of action. (1.) The Law of Nature is the will of God as to human conduct, founded on the moral difference of things, and discoverable by natural light (Rom. 1:20; 2:14, 15). This law binds all men at all times. It is generally designated by the term conscience, or the capacity of being influenced by the moral relations of things.

Law of Moses: is the whole body of the Mosaic legislation (1 Kings 2:3; 2 Kings 23:25; Ezra 3:2). It is called by way of eminence simply 'the Law' (Heb. Torah, Deut. 1:5; 4:8, 44; 17:18, 19; 27:3, 8). As a written code it is called the 'book of the law of Moses' (2 Kings 14:6; Isa. 8:20), the 'book of the law of God' (Josh. 24:26).

Lawyer: among the Jews, was one versed in the laws of Moses, which he expounded in the schools and synagogues (Matt. 22:35; Luke 10:25). The functions of the 'lawyer' and 'scribe' were identical. (See DOCTOR.)

Lazarus: an abbreviation of Eleazar, whom God helps. (1.) The brother of Mary and Martha of Bethany. He was raised from the dead after he had lain four days in the tomb (John 11:1-44). This miracle so excited the wrath of the Jews that they sought to put both Jesus and Lazarus to death.

Leaf: of a tree. The olive-leaf mentioned Gen. 8:11. The barren fig-tree had nothing but leaves (Matt. 21:19; Mark 11:13). The oak-leaf is mentioned Isa. 1:30; 6:13. There are numerous allusions to leaves, their flourishing, their decay, and their restoration (Lev. 26:36; Isa. 34:4; Jer. 8:13; Dan. 4:12, 14, 21; Mark 11:13; 13:28). The fresh leaf is a symbol of prosperity (Ps. 1:3; Jer. 17:8; Ezek. 47:12); the faded, of decay (Job 13:25; Isa. 1:30; 64:6; Jer. 8:13).

League: a treaty or confederacy. The Jews were forbidden to enter into an alliance of any kind (1) with the Canaanites (Ex. 23:32, 33; 34:12-16); (2) with the Amalekites (Ex. 17:8, 14; Deut. 25:17-19); (3) with the Moabites and Ammonites (Deut. 2:9, 19). Treaties were permitted to be entered into with all other nations. Thus David maintained friendly intercourse with the kings of Tyre and Hamath, and Solomon with the kings of Tyre and Egypt.

Leah: weary, the eldest daughter of Laban, and sister of Rachel (Gen. 29:16). Jacob took her to wife through a deceit of her father (Gen. 29:23). She was 'tender-eyed' (17). She bore to Jacob six sons (32-35), also one daughter, Dinah (30:21). She accompanied Jacob into Canaan, and died there before the time of the going down into Egypt (Gen. 31), and was buried in the cave of Machpelah (49:31).

Leannoth: for answering; i.e., in singing, occurs in the title to Ps. 88. The title 'Mahalath (q.v.) Leannoth' may be rendered 'concerning sickness, to be sung' i.e., perhaps, to be sung in sickness.

Leasing: (Ps. 4:2; 5:6) an Old English word meaning lies, or lying, as the Hebrew word _kazabh_ is generally rendered.

Leather: a girdle of, worn by Elijah (2 Kings 1:8) and John the Baptist (Matt. 3:4). Leather was employed both for clothing (Num. 31:20; Heb. 11:37) and for writing upon. The trade of a tanner is mentioned (Acts 9:43; 10:6, 32). It was probably learned in Egypt.

Leaven: (1.) Heb. seor (Ex. 12:15, 19; 13:7; Lev. 2:11), the remnant of dough from the preceding baking which had fermented and become acid.

Lebanon: white, 'the white mountain of Syria,' is the loftiest and most celebrated mountain range in Syria. It is a branch running southward from the Caucasus, and at its lower end forking into two parallel ranges, the eastern or Anti-Lebanon, and the western or Lebanon proper. They enclose a long valley (Josh. 11:17) of from 5 to 8 miles in width, called by Roman writers Coele-Syria, now called el-Buka'a, 'the valley,' a prolongation of the valley of the Jordan.

Lebbaeus: courageous, a surname of Judas (Jude), one of the twelve (Matt. 10:3), called also Thaddaeus, not to be confounded with the Judas who was the brother of our Lord.

Lebonah: frankincense, a town near Shiloh, on the north side of Bethel (Judg. 21:19). It has been identified with el-Lubban, to the south of Nablus.

Leek: (Heb. hatsir; the Allium porrum), rendered 'grass' in 1 Kings 18:5, 2 Kings 19:26, Job 40:15, etc.; 'herb' in Job 8:12; 'hay' in Prov. 27:25, and Isa. 15:6; 'leeks' only in Num. 11:5. This Hebrew word seems to denote in this last passage simply herbs, such as lettuce or savoury herbs cooked as kitchen vegetables, and not necessarily what are now called leeks. The leek was a favourite vegetable in Egypt, and is still largely cultivated there and in Palestine.

Lees: (Heb. shemarim), from a word meaning to keep or preserve. It was applied to 'lees' from the custom of allowing wine to stand on the lees that it might thereby be better preserved (Isa. 25:6). 'Men settled on their lees' (Zeph. 1:12) are men 'hardened or crusted.' The image is derived from the crust formed at the bottom of wines long left undisturbed (Jer. 48:11). The effect of wealthy undisturbed ease on the ungodly is hardening. They become stupidly secure (comp. Ps. 55:19; Amos 6:1). To drink the lees (Ps. 75:8) denotes severe suffering.

Left hand: among the Hebrews, denoted the north (Job 23:9; Gen. 14:15), the face of the person being supposed to be toward the east.

Left-handed: (Judg. 3:15; 20:16), one unable to use the right hand skilfully, and who therefore uses the left; and also one who uses the left as well as the right, ambidexter. Such a condition of the hands is due to physical causes. This quality was common apparently in the tribe of Benjamin.

Legion: a regiment of the Roman army, the number of men composing which differed at different times. It originally consisted of three thousand men, but in the time of Christ consisted of six thousand, exclusive of horsemen, who were in number a tenth of the foot-men. The word is used (Matt. 26:53; Mark 5:9) to express simply a great multitude.

Lehi: a jawbone, a place in the tribe of Judah where Samson achieved a victory over the Philistines (Judg. 15:9, 14, 16), slaying a thousand of them with the jawbone of an ass. The words in 15:19, 'a hollow place that was in the jaw' (A.V.), should be, as in Revised Version, 'the hollow place that is in Lehi.'

Lemuel: dedicated to God, a king whom his mother instructed (Prov. 31:1-9). Nothing is certainly known concerning him. The rabbis identified him with Solomon.

Lentiles: (Heb. 'adashim), a species of vetch (Gen. 25:34; 2 Sam. 23:11), common in Syria under the name addas. The red pottage made by Jacob was of lentils (Gen. 25:29-34). They were among the provisions brought to David when he fled from Absalom (2 Sam. 17:28). It is the Ervum lens of Linnaeus, a leguminous plant which produces a fruit resembling a bean.

Leopard: (Heb. namer, so called because spotted, Cant. 4:8), was that great spotted feline which anciently infested the mountains of Syria, more appropriately called a panther (Felis pardus). Its fierceness (Isa. 11:6), its watching for its prey (Jer. 5:6), its swiftness (Hab. 1:8), and the spots of its skin (Jer. 13:23), are noticed. This word is used symbolically (Dan. 7:6; Rev. 13:2).

Leprosy: (Heb. tsara'ath, a 'smiting,' a 'stroke,' because the disease was regarded as a direct providential infliction). This name is from the Greek lepra, by which the Greek physicians designated the disease from its scaliness. We have the description of the disease, as well as the regulations connected with it, in Lev. 13; 14; Num. 12:10-15, etc. There were reckoned six different circumstances under which it might develop itself, (1) without any apparent cause (Lev. 13:2-8); (2) its reappearance (9-17); (3) from an inflammation (18-28); (4) on the head or chin (29-37); (5) in white polished spots (38, 39); (6) at the back or in the front of the head (40-44).

Letter: in Rom. 2:27, 29 means the outward form. The 'oldness of the letter' (7:6) is a phrase which denotes the old way of literal outward obedience to the law as a system of mere external rules of conduct. In 2 Cor. 3:6, 'the letter' means the Mosaic law as a written law. (See WRITING.)

Leummim: peoples; nations, the last mentioned of the three sons of Dedan, and head of an Arabian tribe (Gen. 25:3).

Levi: adhesion. (1.) The third son of Jacob by Leah. The origin of the name is found in Leah's words (Gen. 29:34), 'This time will my husband be joined [Heb. yillaveh] unto me.' He is mentioned as taking a prominent part in avenging his sister Dinah (Gen. 34:25-31). He and his three sons went down with Jacob (46:11) into Egypt, where he died at the age of one hundred and thirty-seven years (Ex. 6:16).

Leviathan: a transliterated Hebrew word (livyathan), meaning 'twisted,' 'coiled.' In Job 3:8, Revised Version, and marg. of Authorized Version, it denotes the dragon which, according to Eastern tradition, is an enemy of light; in 41:1 the crocodile is meant; in Ps. 104:26 it 'denotes any large animal that moves by writhing or wriggling the body, the whale, the monsters of the deep.' This word is also used figuratively for a cruel enemy, as some think 'the Egyptian host, crushed by the divine power, and cast on the shores of the Red Sea' (Ps. 74:14). As used in Isa. 27:1, 'leviathan the piercing [R.V. 'swift'] serpent, even leviathan that crooked [R.V. marg. 'winding'] serpent,' the word may probably denote the two empires, the Assyrian and the Babylonian.

Levirate Law: from Latin levir, 'a husband's brother,' the name of an ancient custom ordained by Moses, by which, when an Israelite died without issue, his surviving brother was required to marry the widow, so as to continue his brother's family through the son that might be born of that marriage (Gen. 38:8; Deut. 25:5-10; comp. Ruth 3; 4:10). Its object was 'to raise up seed to the departed brother.'

Levite: a descendant of the tribe of Levi (Ex. 6:25; Lev. 25:32; Num. 35:2; Josh. 21:3, 41). This name is, however, generally used as the title of that portion of the tribe which was set apart for the subordinate offices of the sanctuary service (1 Kings 8:4; Ezra 2:70), as assistants to the priests.

Leviticus: the third book of the Pentateuch; so called in the Vulgate, after the LXX., because it treats chiefly of the Levitical service.

Levy: (1 Kings 4:6, R.V.; 5:13), forced service. The service of tributaries was often thus exacted by kings. Solomon raised a 'great levy' of 30,000 men, about two per cent. of the population, to work for him by courses on Lebanon. Adoram (12:18) presided over this forced labour service (Ger. Frohndienst; Fr. corvee).

Lewdness: (Acts 18:14), villany or wickedness, not lewdness in the modern sense of the word. The word 'lewd' is from the Saxon, and means properly 'ignorant,' 'unlearned,' and hence low, vicious (Acts 17:5).

Libertine: found only Acts 6:9, one who once had been a slave, but who had been set at liberty, or the child of such a person. In this case the name probably denotes those descendants of Jews who had been carried captives to Rome as prisoners of war by Pompey and other Roman generals in the Syrian wars, and had afterwards been liberated. In A.D. 19 these manumitted Jews were banished from Rome. Many of them found their way to Jerusalem, and there established a synagogue.

Libnah: transparency; whiteness. (1.) One of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness (Num. 33:20, 21).

Libni: white, one of the two sons of Gershon, the son of Levi (Ex. 6:17; Num. 3:18, 21). (See LAADAN (n/a).)

Libya: the country of the Ludim (Gen. 10:13), Northern Africa, a large tract lying along the Mediterranean, to the west of Egypt (Acts 2:10). Cyrene was one of its five cities.

Lice: (Heb. kinnim), the creatures employed in the third plague sent upon Egypt (Ex. 8:16-18). They were miraculously produced from the dust of the land. 'The entomologists Kirby and Spence place these minute but disgusting insects in the very front rank of those which inflict injury upon man. A terrible list of examples they have collected of the ravages of this and closely allied parasitic pests.' The plague of lice is referred to in Ps. 105:31.

Lie: an intentional violation of the truth. Lies are emphatically condemned in Scripture (John 8:44; 1 Tim. 1:9, 10; Rev. 21:27; 22:15). Mention is made of the lies told by good men, as by Abraham (Gen. 12:12, 13; 20:2), Isaac (26:7), and Jacob (27:24); also by the Hebrew midwives (Ex. 1:15-19), by Michal (1 Sam. 19:14), and by David (1 Sam. 20:6). (See ANANIAS.)

Lieutenant: (only in A.V. Esther 3:12; 8:9; 9:3; Ezra 8:36), a governor or viceroy of a Persian province having both military and civil power. Correctly rendered in the Revised Version 'satrap.'

Life: generally of physical life (Gen. 2:7; Luke 16:25, etc.); also used figuratively (1) for immortality (Heb. 7:16); (2) conduct or manner of life (Rom. 6:4); (3) spiritual life or salvation (John 3:16, 17, 18, 36); (4) eternal life (Matt. 19:16, 17; John 3:15); of God and Christ as the absolute source and cause of all life (John 1:4; 5:26, 39; 11:25; 12:50).

Light: the offspring of the divine command (Gen. 1:3). 'All the more joyous emotions of the mind, all the pleasing sensations of the frame, all the happy hours of domestic intercourse were habitually described among the Hebrews under imagery derived from light' (1 Kings 11:36; Isa. 58:8; Esther 8:16; Ps. 97:11). Light came also naturally to typify true religion and the felicity it imparts (Ps. 119:105; Isa. 8:20; Matt. 4:16, etc.), and the glorious inheritance of the redeemed (Col. 1:12; Rev. 21:23-25). God is said to dwell in light inaccessible (1 Tim. 6:16). It frequently signifies instruction (Matt. 5:16; John 5:35). In its highest sense it is applied to Christ as the 'Sun of righteousness' (Mal. 4:2; Luke 2:32; John 1:7-9). God is styled 'the Father of lights' (James 1:17). It is used of angels (2 Cor. 11:14), and of John the Baptist, who was a 'burning and a shining light' (John 5:35), and of all true disciples, who are styled 'the light of the world' (Matt. 5:14).

Lightning: frequently referred to by the sacred writers (Nah. 1:3-6). Thunder and lightning are spoken of as tokens of God's wrath (2 Sam. 22:15; Job 28:26; 37:4; Ps. 135:7; 144:6; Zech. 9:14). They represent God's glorious and awful majesty (Rev. 4:5), or some judgment of God on the world (20:9).

Lign-aloes: (only in pl., Heb. 'ahalim), a perfume derived from some Oriental tree (Num. 24:6), probably the agallochum or aloe-wood. (See ALOES).

Ligure: (Heb. leshem) occurs only in Ex. 28:19 and 39:12, as the name of a stone in the third row on the high priest's breastplate. Some have supposed that this stone was the same as the jacinth (q.v.), others that it was the opal. There is now no mineral bearing this name. The 'ligurite' is so named from Liguria in Italy, where it was found.

Lily: The Hebrew name shushan or shoshan, i.e., 'whiteness', was used as the general name of several plants common to Syria, such as the tulip, iris, anemone, gladiolus, ranunculus, etc. Some interpret it, with much probability, as denoting in the Old Testament the water-lily (Nymphoea lotus of Linn.), or lotus (Cant. 2:1, 2; 2:16; 4:5; 5:13; 6:2, 3; 7:2). 'Its flowers are large, and they are of a white colour, with streaks of pink. They supplied models for the ornaments of the pillars and the molten sea' (1 Kings 7:19, 22, 26; 2 Chr. 4:5). In the Canticles its beauty and fragrance shadow forth the preciousness of Christ to the Church. Groser, however (Scrip. Nat. Hist.), strongly argues that the word, both in the Old and New Testaments, denotes liliaceous plants in general, or if one genus is to be selected, that it must be the genus Iris, which is 'large, vigorous, elegant in form, and gorgeous in colouring.'

Lime: The Hebrew word so rendered means 'boiling' or 'effervescing.' From Isa. 33:12 it appears that lime was made in a kiln lighted by thorn-bushes. In Amos 2:1 it is recorded that the king of Moab 'burned the bones of the king of Edom into lime.' The same Hebrew word is used in Deut. 27:2-4, and is there rendered 'plaster.' Limestone is the chief constituent of the mountains of Syria.

Linen: (1.) Heb., pishet, pishtah, denotes 'flax,' of which linen is made (Isa. 19:9); wrought flax, i.e., 'linen cloth', Lev. 13:47, 48, 52, 59; Deut. 22:11.

Linen-yarn: (See YARN.)

Lines: were used for measuring and dividing land; and hence the word came to denote a portion or inheritance measured out; a possession (Ps. 16:6).

Lintel: (1.) Heb. mashkoph, a projecting cover (Ex. 12:22, 23; ver. 7, 'upper door post,' but R.V. 'lintel'); the head-piece of a door, which the Israelites were commanded to mark with the blood of the paschal lamb.

Lions: the most powerful of all carnivorous animals. Although not now found in Palestine, they must have been in ancient times very numerous there. They had their lairs in the forests (Jer. 5:6; 12:8; Amos 3:4), in the caves of the mountains (Cant. 4:8; Nah. 2:12), and in the canebrakes on the banks of the Jordan (Jer. 49:19; 50:44; Zech. 11:3).

Lip: besides its literal sense (Isa. 37:29, etc.), is used in the original (saphah) metaphorically for an edge or border, as of a cup (1 Kings 7:26), a garment (Ex. 28:32), a curtain (26:4), the sea (Gen. 22:17), the Jordan (2 Kings 2:13). To 'open the lips' is to begin to speak (Job 11:5); to 'refrain the lips' is to keep silence (Ps. 40:9; 1 Pet. 3:10). The 'fruit of the lips' (Heb. 13:15) is praise, and the 'calves of the lips' thank-offerings (Hos. 14:2). To 'shoot out the lip' is to manifest scorn and defiance (Ps. 22:7). Many similar forms of expression are found in Scripture.

Litter: (Heb. tsab, as being lightly and gently borne), a sedan or palanquin for the conveyance of persons of rank (Isa. 66:20). In Num. 7:3, the words 'covered wagons' are more literally 'carts of the litter kind.' There they denote large and commodious vehicles drawn by oxen, and fitted for transporting the furniture of the temple.

Liver: (Heb. kabhed, 'heavy;' hence the liver, as being the heaviest of the viscera, Ex. 29:13, 22; Lev. 3:4, 1, 10, 15) was burnt upon the altar, and not used as sacrificial food. In Ezek. 21:21 there is allusion, in the statement that the king of Babylon 'looked upon the liver,' to one of the most ancient of all modes of divination. The first recorded instance of divination (q.v.) is that of the teraphim of Laban. By the teraphim the LXX. and Josephus understood 'the liver of goats.' By the 'caul above the liver,' in Lev. 4:9; 7:4, etc., some understand the great lobe of the liver itself.

Living creatures: as represented by Ezekiel (1-10) and John (Rev. 4, etc.), are the cherubim. They are distinguished from angels (Rev. 15:7); they join the elders in the 'new song' (5:8, 9); they warn of danger from divine justice (Isa. 6:3-5), and deliver the commission to those who execute it (Ezek. 10:2, 7); they associate with the elders in their sympathy with the hundred and forty-four thousand who sing the new song (Rev. 14:3), and with the Church in the overthrow of her enemies (19:4).

Lizard: Only in Lev. 11:30, as rendering of Hebrew _letaah_, so called from its 'hiding.' Supposed to be the Lacerta gecko or fan-foot lizard, from the toes of which poison exudes. (See CHAMELEON

Lo-ammi: not my people, a symbolical name given by God's command to Hosea's second son in token of Jehovah's rejection of his people (Hos. 1:9, 10), his treatment of them as a foreign people. This Hebrew word is rendered by 'not my people' in ver. 10; 2:23.

Lo-debar: no pasture, (2 Sam. 17:27), a town in Gilead not far from Mahanaim, north of the Jabbok (9:4, 5). It is probably identical with Debir (Josh. 13:26).

Lo-ruhamah: not pitied, the name of the prophet Hosea's first daughter, a type of Jehovah's temporary rejection of his people (Hos. 1:6; 2:23).

Loan: The Mosaic law required that when an Israelite needed to borrow, what he asked was to be freely lent to him, and no interest was to be charged, although interest might be taken of a foreigner (Ex. 22:25; Deut. 23:19, 20; Lev. 25:35-38). At the end of seven years all debts were remitted. Of a foreigner the loan might, however, be exacted. At a later period of the Hebrew commonwealth, when commerce increased, the practice of exacting usury or interest on loans, and of suretiship in the commercial sense, grew up. Yet the exaction of it from a Hebrew was regarded as discreditable (Ps. 15:5; Prov. 6:1, 4; 11:15; 17:18; 20:16; 27:13; Jer. 15:10).

Lock: The Hebrews usually secured their doors by bars of wood or iron (Isa. 45:2; 1 Kings 4:3). These were the locks originally used, and were opened and shut by large keys applied through an opening in the outside (Judg. 3:24). (See KEY.)

Locust: There are ten Hebrew words used in Scripture to signify locust. In the New Testament locusts are mentioned as forming part of the food of John the Baptist (Matt. 3:4; Mark 1:6). By the Mosaic law they were reckoned 'clean,' so that he could lawfully eat them. The name also occurs in Rev. 9:3, 7, in allusion to this Oriental devastating insect.

Lodge: a shed for a watchman in a garden (Isa. 1:8). The Hebrew name _melunah_ is rendered 'cottage' (q.v.) in Isa. 24:20. It also denotes a hammock or hanging-bed.

Log: the smallest measure for liquids used by the Hebrews (Lev. 14:10, 12, 15, 21, 24), called in the Vulgate sextarius. It is the Hebrew unit of measure of capacity, and is equal to the contents of six ordinary hen's eggs=the twelfth part of a him, or nearly a pint.

Lois: the maternal grandmother of Timothy. She is commended by Paul for her faith (2 Tim. 1:5).

Loop: a knotted 'eye' of cord, corresponding to the 'taches' or knobs in the edges of the curtains of the tabernacle, for joining them into a continuous circuit, fifty to a curtain (Ex. 26:4, 5, 10, 11).

Lord: There are various Hebrew and Greek words so rendered.

Lord's day: only once, in Rev. 1:10, was in the early Christian ages used to denote the first day of the week, which commemorated the Lord's resurrection. There is every reason to conclude that John thus used the name. (See SABBATH.)

Lord's Prayer: the name given to the only form of prayer Christ taught his disciples (Matt. 6:9-13). The closing doxology of the prayer is omitted by Luke (11:2-4), also in the R.V. of Matt. 6:13. This prayer contains no allusion to the atonement of Christ, nor to the offices of the Holy Spirit. 'All Christian prayer is based on the Lord's Prayer, but its spirit is also guided by that of His prayer in Gethsemane and of the prayer recorded John 17. The Lord's Prayer is the comprehensive type of the simplest and most universal prayer.'

Lord's Supper: (1 Cor. 11:20), called also 'the Lord's table' (10:21), 'communion,' 'cup of blessing' (10:16), and 'breaking of bread' (Acts 2:42).

Lot: (Heb. goral, a 'pebble'), a small stone used in casting lots (Num. 33:54; Jonah 1:7). The lot was always resorted to by the Hebrews with strictest reference to the interposition of God, and as a method of ascertaining the divine will (Prov. 16:33), and in serious cases of doubt (Esther 3:7). Thus the lot was used at the division of the land of Canaan among the serveral tribes (Num. 26:55; 34:13), at the detection of Achan (Josh. 7:14, 18), the election of Saul to be king (1 Sam. 10:20, 21), the distribution of the priestly offices of the temple service (1 Chr. 24:3, 5, 19; Luke 1:9), and over the two goats at the feast of Atonement (Lev. 16:8). Matthias, who was 'numbered with the eleven' (Acts 1:24-26), was chosen by lot.

Lotan: coverer, one of the sons of Seir, the Horite (Gen. 36:20, 29).

Love: This word seems to require explanation only in the case of its use by our Lord in his interview with 'Simon, the son of Jonas,' after his resurrection (John 21:16, 17). When our Lord says, 'Lovest thou me?' he uses the Greek word _agapas_; and when Simon answers, he uses the Greek word _philo_, i.e., 'I love.' This is the usage in the first and second questions put by our Lord; but in the third our Lord uses Simon's word. The distinction between these two Greek words is thus fitly described by Trench:, '_Agapan_ has more of judgment and deliberate choice; _philein_ has more of attachment and peculiar personal affection. Thus the 'Lovest thou' (Gr. agapas) on the lips of the Lord seems to Peter at this moment too cold a word, as though his Lord were keeping him at a distance, or at least not inviting him to draw near, as in the passionate yearning of his heart he desired now to do. Therefore he puts by the word and substitutes his own stronger 'I love' (Gr. philo) in its room. A second time he does the same. And now he has conquered; for when the Lord demands a third time whether he loves him, he does it in the word which alone will satisfy Peter ('Lovest thou,' Gr. phileis), which alone claims from him that personal attachment and affection with which indeed he knows that his heart is full.'

Lubims: the inhabitants of a thirsty or scorched land; the Lybians, an African nation under tribute to Egypt (2 Chr. 12:3; 16:8). Their territory was apparently near Egypt. They were probably the Mizraite Lehabim.

Lucas: a friend and companion of Paul during his imprisonment at Rome; Luke (q.v.), the beloved physician (Philemon 1:24; Col. 4:14).

Lucifer: brilliant star, a title given to the king of Babylon (Isa. 14:12) to denote his glory.

Lucius: of Cyrene, a Christian teacher at Antioch (Acts 13:1), and Paul's kinsman (Rom. 16:21). His name is Latin, but his birthplace seems to indicate that he was one of the Jews of Cyrene, in North Africa.

Lucre: from the Lat. lucrum, 'gain.' 1 Tim. 3:3, 'not given to filthy lucre.' Some MSS. have not the word so rendered, and the expression has been omitted in the Revised Version.

Lud: (1.) The fourth son of Shem (Gen. 10:22; 1 Chr. 1:17), ancestor of the Lydians probably.

Ludim: probably the same as Lud (2) (comp. Gen. 10:13; 1 Chr. 1:11). They are associated (Jer. 46:9) with African nations as mercenaries of the king of Egypt.

Luhith: made of boards, a Moabitish place between Zoar and Horonaim (Isa. 15:5; Jer. 48:5).

Luke: the evangelist, was a Gentile. The date and circumstances of his conversion are unknown. According to his own statement (Luke 1:2), he was not an 'eye-witness and minister of the word from the beginning.' It is probable that he was a physician in Troas, and was there converted by Paul, to whom he attached himself. He accompanied him to Philippi, but did not there share his imprisonment, nor did he accompany him further after his release in his missionary journey at this time (Acts 17:1). On Paul's third visit to Philippi (20:5, 6) we again meet with Luke, who probably had spent all the intervening time in that city, a period of seven or eight years. From this time Luke was Paul's constant companion during his journey to Jerusalem (20:6-21:18). He again disappears from view during Paul's imprisonment at Jerusalem and Caesarea, and only reappears when Paul sets out for Rome (27:1), whither he accompanies him (28:2, 12-16), and where he remains with him till the close of his first imprisonment (Philemon 1:24; Col. 4:14). The last notice of the 'beloved physician' is in 2 Tim. 4:11.

Luke, Gospel according to: was written by Luke. He does not claim to have been an eye-witness of our Lord's ministry, but to have gone to the best sources of information within his reach, and to have written an orderly narrative of the facts (Luke 1:1-4). The authors of the first three Gospels, the synoptics, wrote independently of each other. Each wrote his independent narrative under the guidance of the Holy Spirit.

Lunatic: probably the same as epileptic, the symptoms of which disease were supposed to be more aggravated as the moon increased. In Matt. 4:24 'lunatics' are distinguished from demoniacs. In 17:15 the name 'lunatic' is applied to one who is declared to have been possessed. (See DAEMONIAC.)

Lust: sinful longing; the inward sin which leads to the falling away from God (Rom. 1:21). 'Lust, the origin of sin, has its place in the heart, not of necessity, but because it is the centre of all moral forces and impulses and of spiritual activity.' In Mark 4:19 'lusts' are objects of desire.

Luz: a nut-bearing tree, the almond. (1.) The ancient name of a royal Canaanitish city near the site of Bethel (Gen. 28:19; 35:6), on the border of Benjamin (Josh. 18:13). Here Jacob halted, and had a prophetic vision. (See BETHEL.)

Lycaonia: an inland province of Asia Minor, on the west of Cappadocia and the south of Galatia. It was a Roman province, and its chief towns were Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe. The 'speech of Lycaonia' (Acts 14:11) was probably the ancient Assyrian language, or perhaps, as others think, a corrupt Greek intermingled with Syriac words. Paul preached in this region, and revisited it (Acts 16:1-6; 18:23; 19:1).

Lycia: a wolf, a province in the south-west of Asia Minor, opposite the island of Rhodes. It forms part of the region now called Tekeh. It was a province of the Roman empire when visited by Paul (Acts 21:1; 27:5). Two of its towns are mentioned, Patara (21:1, 2) and Myra (27:5).

Lydda: a town in the tribe of Ephraim, mentioned only in the New Testament (Acts 9:32, 35, 38) as the scene of Peter's miracle in healing the paralytic AEneas. It lay about 9 miles east of Joppa, on the road from the sea-port to Jerusalem. In the Old Testament (1 Chr. 8:12) it is called Lod. It was burned by the Romans, but was afterwards rebuilt, and was known by the name of Diospolis. Its modern name is Ludd. The so-called patron saint of England, St. George, is said to have been born here.

Lydia: (1.) Ezek. 30:5 (Heb. Lud), a province in the west of Asia Minor, which derived its name from the fourth son of Shem (Gen. 10:22). It was bounded on the east by the greater Phrygia, and on the west by Ionia and the AEgean Sea.

Lysanias: tetrarch of Abilene (Luke 3:1), on the eastern slope of Anti-Lebanon, near the city of Damascus.

Lysias, Claudius: the chief captain (chiliarch) who commanded the Roman troops in Jerusalem, and sent Paul under guard to the procurator Felix at Caesarea (Acts 21:31-38; 22:24-30). His letter to his superior officer is an interesting specimen of Roman military correspondence (23:26-30). He obtained his Roman citizenship by purchase, and was therefore probably a Greek. (See CLAUDIUS

Lystra: a town of Lycaonia, in Asia Minor, in a wild district and among a rude population. Here Paul preached the gospel after he had been driven by persecution from Iconium (Acts 14:2-7). Here also he healed a lame man (8), and thus so impressed the ignorant and superstitious people that they took him for Mercury, because he was the 'chief speaker,' and his companion Barnabas for Jupiter, probably in consequence of his stately, venerable appearance; and were proceeding to offer sacrifices to them (13), when Paul earnestly addressed them and turned their attention to the true source of all blessings. But soon after, through the influence of the Jews from Antioch in Pisidia and Iconium, they stoned Paul and left him for dead (14:19). On recovering, Paul left for Derbe; but soon returned again, through Lystra, encouraging the disciples there to steadfastness. He in all likelihood visited this city again on his third missionary tour (Acts 18:23). Timothy, who was probably born here (2 Tim. 3:10, 11), was no doubt one of those who were on this occasion witnesses of Paul's persecution and his courage in Lystra.