Bible Dictionary


Paarai: opening of the Lord, 'the Arbite,' one of David's heroes (2 Sam. 23:35); called also Naarai, 1 Chr. 11:37.

Padan: a plain, occurring only in Gen. 48:7, where it designates Padan-aram.

Petra: rock, Isa. 16:1, marg. (See SELA.)

Peulthai: wages of the Lord, one of the sons of Obed-edom, a Levite porter (1 Chr. 26:5).

Phalec: (Luke 3:35)=Peleg (q.v.), Gen. 11:16.

Phallu: separated, the second son of Reuben (Gen. 46:9).

Phalti: deliverance of the Lord, the son of Laish of Gallim (1 Sam. 25:44)= Phaltiel (2 Sam. 3:15). Michal, David's wife, was given to him.

Phanuel: face of God, father of the prophetess Anna (q.v.), Luke 2:36.

Pharaoh: the official title borne by the Egyptian kings down to the time when that country was conquered by the Greeks. (See EGYPT

Pharaoh's daughters: Three princesses are thus mentioned in Scripture: (1.) The princess who adopted the infant Moses (q.v.), Ex. 2:10. She is twice mentioned in the New Testament (Acts 7:21: Heb. 11:24). It would seem that she was alive and in some position of influence about the court when Moses was compelled to flee from Egypt, and thus for forty years he had in some way been under her influence. She was in all probability the sister of Rameses, and the daughter of Seti I. Josephus calls her Thermuthis. It is supposed by some that she was Nefert-ari, the wife as well as sister of Rameses. The mummy of this queen was among the treasures found at Deir-el-Bahari.

Pharez: breach, the elder of the twin sons of Judah (Gen. 38:29). From him the royal line of David sprang (Ruth 4:18-22). 'The chief of all the captains of the host' was of the children of Perez (1 Chr. 27:3; Matt. 1:3).

Pharisees: separatists (Heb. persahin, from parash, 'to separate'). They were probably the successors of the Assideans (i.e., the 'pious'), a party that originated in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes in revolt against his heathenizing policy. The first mention of them is in a description by Josephus of the three sects or schools into which the Jews were divided (B.C. 145). The other two sects were the Essenes and the Sadducees. In the time of our Lord they were the popular party (John 7:48). They were extremely accurate and minute in all matters appertaining to the law of Moses (Matt. 9:14; 23:15; Luke 11:39; 18:12). Paul, when brought before the council of Jerusalem, professed himself a Pharisee (Acts 23:6-8; 26:4, 5).

Pharpar: swift, one of the rivers of Damascus (2 Kings 5:12). It has been identified with the 'Awaj, 'a small lively river.' The whole of the district watered by the 'Awaj is called the Wady el-'Ajam, i.e., 'the valley of the Persians', so called for some unknown reason. This river empties itself into the lake or marsh Bahret Hijaneh, on the east of Damascus. One of its branches bears the modern name of Wady Barbar, which is probably a corruption of Pharpar.

Phebe: a 'deaconess of the church at Cenchrea,' the port of Corinth. She was probably the bearer of Paul's epistle to the Romans. Paul commended her to the Christians at Rome; 'for she hath been,' says he, 'a succourer of many, and of myself also' (Rom. 16:1, 2).

Phenice: properly Phoenix a palm-tree (as in the R.V.), a town with a harbour on the southern side of Crete (Acts 27:12), west of the Fair Havens. It is now called Lutro.

Phenicia: (Acts 21:2) = Phenice (11:19; 15:3; R.V., Phoenicia), Gr. phoinix, 'a palm', the land of palm-trees; a strip of land of an average breadth of about 20 miles along the shores of the Mediterranean, from the river Eleutherus in the north to the promotory of Carmel in the south, about 120 miles in length. This name is not found in the Old Testament, and in the New Testament it is mentioned only in the passages above referred to.

Phicol: great, the chief captain of the army of Abimelech, the Philistine king of Gerar. He entered into an alliance with Abraham with reference to a certain well which, from this circumstance, was called Beersheba (q.v.), 'the well of the oath' (Gen. 21:22, 32; 26:26).

Philadelphia: brotherly love, a city of Lydia in Asia Minor, about 25 miles south-east of Sardis. It was the seat of one of the 'seven churches' (Rev. 3:7-12). It came into the possession of the Turks in A.D. 1392. It has several times been nearly destroyed by earthquakes. It is still a town of considerable size, called Allahshehr, 'the city of God.'

Philemon: an inhabitant of Colosse, and apparently a person of some note among the citizens (Col. 4:9; Philemon 1:2). He was brought to a knowledge of the gospel through the instrumentality of Paul (19), and held a prominent place in the Christian community for his piety and beneficence (4-7). He is called in the epistle a 'fellow-labourer,' and therefore probably held some office in the church at Colosse; at all events, the title denotes that he took part in the work of spreading a knowledge of the gospel.

Philemon, Epistle to: was written from Rome at the same time as the epistles to the Colossians and Ephesians, and was sent also by Onesimus. It was addressed to Philemon and the members of his family.

Philetus: amiable, with Hymenaeus, at Ephesus, said that the 'resurrection was past already' (2 Tim. 2:17, 18). This was a Gnostic heresy held by the Nicolaitanes. (See ALEXANDER [4].)

Philip: lover of horses. (1.) One of the twelve apostles; a native of Bethsaida, 'the city of Andrew and Peter' (John 1:44). He readily responded to the call of Jesus when first addressed to him (43), and forthwith brought Nathanael also to Jesus (45,46). He seems to have held a prominent place among the apostles (Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:18; John 6:5-7; 12:21, 22; 14:8, 9; Acts 1:13). Of his later life nothing is certainly known. He is said to have preached in Phrygia, and to have met his death at Hierapolis.

Philippi: (1.) Formerly Crenides, 'the fountain,' the capital of the province of Macedonia. It stood near the head of the Sea, about 8 miles north-west of Kavalla. It is now a ruined village, called Philibedjik. Philip of Macedonia fortified the old Thracian town of Crenides, and called it after his own name Philippi (B.C. 359-336). In the time of the Emperor Augustus this city became a Roman colony, i.e., a military settlement of Roman soldiers, there planted for the purpose of controlling the district recently conquered. It was a 'miniature Rome,' under the municipal law of Rome, and governed by military officers, called duumviri, who were appointed directly from Rome. Having been providentially guided thither, here Paul and his companion Silas preached the gospel and formed the first church in Europe. (See LYDIA.) This success stirred up the enmity of the people, and they were 'shamefully entreated' (Acts 16:9-40; 1 Thess. 2:2). Paul and Silas at length left this city and proceeded to Amphipolis (q.v.).

Philippians, Epistle to: was written by Paul during the two years when he was 'in bonds' in Rome (Phil. 1:7-13), probably early in the year A.D. 62 or in the end of 61.

Philistia: =Palestine (q.v.), 'the land of the Philistines' (Ps. 60:8; 87:4; 108:9). The word is supposed to mean 'the land of wanderers' or 'of strangers.'

Philistines: (Gen. 10:14, R.V.; but in A.V., 'Philistim'), a tribe allied to the Phoenicians. They were a branch of the primitive race which spread over the whole district of the Lebanon and the valley of the Jordan, and Crete and other Mediterranean islands. Some suppose them to have been a branch of the Rephaim (2 Sam. 21:16-22). In the time of Abraham they inhabited the south-west of Judea, Abimelech of Gerar being their king (Gen. 21:32, 34; 26:1). They are, however, not noticed among the Canaanitish tribes mentioned in the Pentateuch. They are spoken of by Amos (9:7) and Jeremiah (47:4) as from Caphtor, i.e., probably Crete, or, as some think, the Delta of Egypt. In the whole record from Exodus to Samuel they are represented as inhabiting the tract of country which lay between Judea and Egypt (Ex. 13:17; 15:14, 15; Josh. 13:3; 1 Sam. 4).

Phinehas: mouth of brass, or from old Egypt, the negro. (1.) Son of Eleazar, the high priest (Ex. 6:25). While yet a youth he distinguished himself at Shittim by his zeal against the immorality into which the Moabites had tempted the people (Num. 25:1-9), and thus 'stayed the plague' that had broken out among the people, and by which twenty-four thousand of them perished. For his faithfulness on that occasion he received the divine approbation (10-13). He afterwards commanded the army that went out against the Midianites (31:6-8). When representatives of the people were sent to expostulate with the two and a half tribes who, just after crossing Jordan, built an altar and departed without giving any explanation, Phinehas was their leader, and addressed them in the words recorded in Josh. 22:16-20. Their explanation follows. This great altar was intended to be all ages only a witness that they still formed a part of Israel. Phinehas was afterwards the chief adviser in the war with the Benjamites. He is commemorated in Ps. 106:30, 31. (See ED

Phlegon: burning, a Roman Christian to whom Paul sent salutations (Rom. 16:14).

Phoenicia: (Acts 21:2). (See PHENICIA.)

Phrygia: dry, an irregular and ill-defined district in Asia Minor. It was divided into two parts, the Greater Phrygia on the south, and the Lesser Phrygia on the west. It is the Greater Phrygia that is spoken of in the New Testament. The towns of Antioch in Pisidia (Acts 13:14), Colosse, Hierapolis, Iconium, and Laodicea were situated in it.

Phut: Phut is placed between Egypt and Canaan in Gen. 10:6, and elsewhere we find the people of Phut described as mercenaries in the armies of Egypt and Tyre (Jer. 46:9; Ezek. 30:5; 27:10). In a fragment of the annuals of Nebuchadrezzar which records his invasion of Egypt, reference is made to 'Phut of the Ionians.'

Phygellus: fugitive, a Christian of Asia, who 'turned away' from Paul during his second imprisonment at Rome (2 Tim. 1:15). Nothing more is known of him.

Phylacteries: (Gr. phulakteria; i.e., 'defences' or 'protections'), called by modern Jews tephillin (i.e., 'prayers') are mentioned only in Matt. 23:5. They consisted of strips of parchment on which were inscribed these four texts: (1.) Ex. 13:1-10; (2.) 11-16; (3.) Deut. 6:4-9; (4.) 11:18-21, and which were enclosed in a square leather case, on one side of which was inscribed the Hebrew letter shin, to which the rabbis attached some significance. This case was fastened by certain straps to the forehead just between the eyes. The 'making broad the phylacteries' refers to the enlarging of the case so as to make it conspicuous. (See FRONTLETS.)

Physician: Asa, afflicted with some bodily malady, 'sought not to the Lord but to the physicians' (2 Chr. 16:12). The 'physicians' were those who 'practised heathen arts of magic, disavowing recognized methods of cure, and dissociating the healing art from dependence on the God of Israel. The sin of Asa was not, therefore, in seeking medical advice, as we understand the phrase, but in forgetting Jehovah.'

Pi-beseth: (Ezek. 30:17), supposed to mean. 'a cat,' or a deity in the form of a cat, worshipped by the Egyptians. It was called by the Greeks Bubastis. The hieroglyphic name is 'Pe-bast', i.e., the house of Bast, the Artemis of the Egyptians. The town of Bubasts was situated on the Pelusian branch, i.e., the easternmost branch, of the Delta. It was the seat of one of the chief annual festivals of the Egyptians. Its ruins bear the modern name of Tel-Basta.

Pi-hahiroth: place where the reeds grow (LXX. and Copt. read 'farmstead'), the name of a place in Egypt where the children of Israel encamped (Ex. 14:2, 9), how long is uncertain. Some have identified it with Ajrud, a fortress between Etham and Suez. The condition of the Isthmus of Suez at the time of the Exodus is not exactly known, and hence this, with the other places mentioned as encampments of Israel in Egypt, cannot be definitely ascertained. The isthmus has been formed by the Nile deposits. This increase of deposit still goes on, and so rapidly that within the last fifty years the mouth of the Nile has advanced northward about four geographical miles. In the maps of Ptolemy (of the second and third centuries A.D.) the mouths of the Nile are forty miles further south than at present. (See EXODUS.)

Pieces: (1) of silver. In Ps. 68:30 denotes 'fragments,' and not properly money. In 1 Sam. 2:36 (Heb. agorah), properly a 'small sum' as wages, weighed rather than coined. Josh. 24:32 (Heb. kesitah, q.v.), supposed by some to have been a piece of money bearing the figure of a lamb, but rather simply a certain amount. (Comp. Gen. 33:19).

Piety: Lat. pietas, properly honour and respect toward parents (1 Tim. 5:4). In Acts 17:23 the Greek verb is rendered 'ye worship,' as applicable to God.

Pigeon: Pigeons are mentioned as among the offerings which, by divine appointment, Abram presented unto the Lord (Gen. 15:9). They were afterwards enumerated among the sin-offerings (Lev. 1:14; 12:6), and the law provided that those who could not offer a lamb might offer two young pigeons (5:7; comp. Luke 2:24). (See DOVE.)

Pilate, Pontius: probably connected with the Roman family of the Pontii, and called 'Pilate' from the Latin pileatus, i.e., 'wearing the pileus', which was the 'cap or badge of a manumitted slave,' as indicating that he was a 'freedman,' or the descendant of one. He was the sixth in the order of the Roman procurators of Judea (A.D. 26-36). His headquarters were at Caesarea, but he frequently went up to Jerusalem. His reign extended over the period of the ministry of John the Baptist and of Jesus Christ, in connection with whose trial his name comes into prominent notice. Pilate was a 'typical Roman, not of the antique, simple stamp, but of the imperial period, a man not without some remains of the ancient Roman justice in his soul, yet pleasure-loving, imperious, and corrupt. He hated the Jews whom he ruled, and in times of irritation freely shed their blood. They returned his hatred with cordiality, and accused him of every crime, maladministration, cruelty, and robbery. He visited Jerusalem as seldom as possible; for, indeed, to one accustomed to the pleasures of Rome, with its theatres, baths, games, and gay society, Jerusalem, with its religiousness and ever-smouldering revolt, was a dreary residence. When he did visit it he stayed in the palace of Herod the Great, it being common for the officers sent by Rome into conquered countries to occupy the palaces of the displaced sovereigns.'

Pillar: used to support a building (Judg. 16:26, 29); as a trophy or memorial (Gen. 28:18; 35:20; Ex. 24:4; 1 Sam. 15:12, A.V., 'place,' more correctly 'monument,' or 'trophy of victory,' as in 2 Sam. 18:18); of fire, by which the Divine Presence was manifested (Ex. 13:2). The 'plain of the pillar' in Judg. 9:6 ought to be, as in the Revised Version, the 'oak of the pillar', i.e., of the monument or stone set up by Joshua (24:26).

Pine tree: Heb. tidhar, mentioned along with the fir-tree in Isa. 41:19; 60:13. This is probably the cypress; or it may be the stone-pine, which is common on the northern slopes of Lebanon. Some suppose that the elm, others that the oak, or holm, or ilex, is meant by the Hebrew word. In Neh. 8:15 the Revised Version has 'wild olive' instead of 'pine.' (See FIR.)

Pinnacle: a little wing, (Matt. 4:5; Luke 4:9). On the southern side of the temple court was a range of porches or cloisters forming three arcades. At the south-eastern corner the roof of this cloister was some 300 feet above the Kidron valley. The pinnacle, some parapet or wing-like projection, was above this roof, and hence at a great height, probably 350 feet or more above the valley.

Pipe: (1 Sam. 10:5; 1 Kings 1:40; Isa. 5:12; 30:29). The Hebrew word halil, so rendered, means 'bored through,' and is the name given to various kinds of wind instruments, as the fife, flute, Pan-pipes, etc. In Amos 6:5 this word is rendered 'instrument of music.' This instrument is mentioned also in the New Testament (Matt. 11:17; 1 Cor. 14:7). It is still used in Palestine, and is, as in ancient times, made of different materials, as reed, copper, bronze, etc.

Piram: like a wild ass, a king of Jarmuth, a royal city of the Canaanites, who was conquered and put to death by Joshua (10:3, 23, 26).

Pirathon: prince, or summit, a place 'in the land of Ephraim' (Judg. 12:15), now Fer'on, some 10 miles south-west of Shechem. This was the home of Abdon the judge.

Pirathonite: (1.) Abdon, the son of Hillel, so called, Judg. 12:13, 15.

Pisgah: a part, a mountain summit in the land of Moab, in the territory of Reuben, where Balak offered up sacrifices (Num. 21:20; 23:14), and from which Moses viewed the promised land (Deut. 3:27). It is probably the modern Jebel Siaghah. (See NEBO

Pisidia: a district in Asia Minor, to the north of Pamphylia. The Taurus range of mountains extends through it. Antioch, one of its chief cities, was twice visited by Paul (Acts 13:14; 14:21-24).

Pison: Babylonian, the current, broad-flowing, one of the 'four heads' into which the river which watered the garden of Eden was divided (Gen. 2:11). Some identify it with the modern Phasis, others with the Halys, others the Jorak or Acampis, others the Jaab, the Indus, the Ganges, etc.

Pit: a hole in the ground (Ex. 21:33, 34), a cistern for water (Gen. 37:24; Jer. 14:3), a vault (41:9), a grave (Ps. 30:3). It is used as a figure for mischief (Ps. 9:15), and is the name given to the unseen place of woe (Rev. 20:1, 3). The slime-pits in the vale of Siddim were wells which yielded asphalt (Gen. 14:10).

Pitch: (Gen. 6:14), asphalt or bitumen in its soft state, called 'slime' (Gen. 11:3; 14:10; Ex. 2:3), found in pits near the Dead Sea (q.v.). It was used for various purposes, as the coating of the outside of vessels and in building. Allusion is made in Isa. 34:9 to its inflammable character. (See SLIME.)

Pitcher: a vessel for containing liquids. In the East pitchers were usually carried on the head or shoulders (Gen. 24:15-20; Judg. 7:16, 19; Mark 14:13).

Pithom: Egyptian, Pa-Tum, 'house of Tum,' the sun-god, one of the 'treasure' cities built for Pharaoh Rameses II. by the Israelites (Ex. 1:11). It was probably the Patumos of the Greek historian Herodotus. It has now been satisfactorily identified with Tell-el-Maskhuta, about 12 miles west of Ismailia, and 20 east of Tel-el-Kebir, on the southern bank of the present Suez Canal. Here have recently (1883) been discovered the ruins of supposed grain-chambers, and other evidences to show that this was a great 'store city.' Its immense ruin-heaps show that it was built of bricks, and partly also of bricks without straw. Succoth (Ex. 12:37) is supposed by some to be the secular name of this city, Pithom being its sacred name. This was the first halting-place of the Israelites in their exodus. It has been argued (Dr. Lansing) that these 'store' cities 'were residence cities, royal dwellings, such as the Pharaohs of old, the Kings of Israel, and our modern Khedives have ever loved to build, thus giving employment to the superabundant muscle of their enslaved peoples, and making a name for themselves.'

Plague: a 'stroke' of affliction, or disease. Sent as a divine chastisement (Num. 11:33; 14:37; 16:46-49; 2 Sam. 24:21). Painful afflictions or diseases, (Lev. 13:3, 5, 30; 1 Kings 8:37), or severe calamity (Mark 5:29; Luke 7:21), or the judgment of God, so called (Ex. 9:14). Plagues of Egypt were ten in number.

Plain: (1.) Heb. 'abel (Judg. 11:33), a 'grassy plain' or 'meadow.' Instead of 'plains of the vineyards,' as in the Authorized Version, the Revised Version has 'Abel-cheramim' (q.v.), comp. Judg. 11:22; 2 Chr. 16:4.

Plain of Mamre: (Gen. 13:18; 14:13; R.V., 'oaks of Mamre;' marg., 'terebinths'). (See MAMRE; TEIL-TREE.)

Plane tree: Heb. 'armon (Gen. 30:37; Ezek. 31:8), rendered 'chesnut' in the Authorized Version, but correctly 'plane tree' in the Revised Version and the LXX. This tree is frequently found in Palestine, both on the coast and in the north. It usually sheds its outer bark, and hence its Hebrew name, which means 'naked.' (See CHESTNUT.)

Pledge: See LOAN.

Pleiades: Heb. kimah, 'a cluster' (Job 9:9; 38:31; Amos 5:8, A.V., 'seven stars;' R.V., 'Pleiades'), a name given to the cluster of stars seen in the shoulder of the constellation Taurus.

Plough: first referred to in Gen. 45:6, where the Authorized Version has 'earing,' but the Revised Version 'ploughing;' next in Ex. 34:21 and Deut. 21:4. The plough was originally drawn by oxen, but sometimes also by asses and by men. (See AGRICULTURE.)

Poetry: has been well defined as 'the measured language of emotion.' Hebrew poetry deals almost exclusively with the great question of man's relation to God. 'Guilt, condemnation, punishment, pardon, redemption, repentance are the awful themes of this heaven-born poetry.'

Padan-aram: the plain of Aram, or the plain of the highlands, (Gen. 25:20; 28:2, 5-7; 31:18, etc.), commonly regarded as the district of Mesopotamia (q.v.) lying around Haran.

Pagiel: God allots, a prince of the tribe of Asher (Num. 1:13), in the wilderness.

Pahath-moab: governor of Moab, a person whose descendants returned from the Captivity and assisted in rebuilding Jerusalem (Ezra 2:6; 8:4; 10:30).

Paint: Jezebel 'painted her face' (2 Kings 9:30); and the practice of painting the face and the eyes seems to have been common (Jer. 4:30; Ezek. 23:40). An allusion to this practice is found in the name of Job's daughter (42:14) Kerenhappuch (q.v.). Paintings in the modern sense of the word were unknown to the ancient Jews.

Palace: Used now only of royal dwellings, although originally meaning simply (as the Latin word palatium, from which it is derived, shows) a building surrounded by a fence or a paling. In the Authorized Version there are many different words so rendered, presenting different ideas, such as that of citadel or lofty fortress or royal residence (Neh. 1:1; Dan. 8:2). It is the name given to the temple fortress (Neh. 2:8) and to the temple itself (1 Chr. 29:1). It denotes also a spacious building or a great house (Dan. 1:4; 4:4, 29: Esther 1:5; 7:7), and a fortified place or an enclosure (Ezek. 25:4). Solomon's palace is described in 1 Kings 7:1-12 as a series of buildings rather than a single great structure. Thirteen years were spent in their erection. This palace stood on the eastern hill, adjoining the temple on the south.

Palestine: originally denoted only the sea-coast of the land of Canaan inhabited by the Philistines (Ex. 15:14; Isa. 14:29, 31; Joel 3:4), and in this sense exclusively the Hebrew name Pelesheth (rendered 'Philistia' in Ps. 60:8; 83:7; 87:4; 108:9) occurs in the Old Testament.

Pallu: separated, the second son of Reuben (1 Chr. 5:3); called Phallu, Gen. 46:9. He was the father of the Phalluites (Ex. 6:14; Num. 26:5, 8).

Palm tree: (Heb. tamar), the date-palm characteristic of Palestine. It is described as 'flourishing' (Ps. 92:12), tall (Cant. 7:7), 'upright' (Jer. 10:5). Its branches are a symbol of victory (Rev. 7:9). 'Rising with slender stem 40 or 50, at times even 80, feet aloft, its only branches, the feathery, snow-like, pale-green fronds from 6 to 12 feet long, bending from its top, the palm attracts the eye wherever it is seen.' The whole land of Palestine was called by the Greeks and Romans Phoenicia, i.e., 'the land of palms.' Tadmor in the desert was called by the Greeks and Romans Palmyra, i.e., 'the city of palms.' The finest specimens of this tree grew at Jericho (Deut. 34:3) and Engedi and along the banks of the Jordan. Branches of the palm tree were carried at the feast of Tabernacles (Lev. 23:40). At our Lord's triumphal entrance into Jerusalem the crowds took palm branches, and went forth to meet him, crying, 'Hosanna: Blessed is the King of Israel that cometh in the name of the Lord' (Matt. 21:8; John 12:13). (See DATE.)

Palm trees, The city of: the name given to Jericho (q.v.), Deut. 34:3; Judg. 1:16; 3:13.

Palmer-worm: (Heb. gazam). The English word may denote either a caterpillar (as rendered by the LXX.), which wanders like a palmer or pilgrim, or which travels like pilgrims in bands (Joel 1:4; 2:25), the wingless locusts, or the migratory locust in its larva state.

Palsy: a shorter form of 'paralysis.' Many persons thus afflicted were cured by our Lord (Matt. 4:24; 8:5-13; 9:2-7; Mark 2:3-11; Luke 7:2-10; John 5:5-7) and the apostles (Acts 8:7; 9:33, 34).

Palti: deliverance from the Lord, one of the spies representing the tribe of Benjamin (Num. 13:9).

Paltiel: deliverance of God, the prince of Issachar who assisted 'to divide the land by inheritance' (Num. 34:26).

Paltite: the designation of one of David's heroes (2 Sam. 23:26); called also the Pelonite (1 Chr. 11:27).

Pamphylia: Paul and his company, loosing from Paphos, sailed north-west and came to Perga, the capital of Pamphylia (Acts 13:13, 14), a province about the middle of the southern sea-board of Asia Minor. It lay between Lycia on the west and Cilicia on the east. There were strangers from Pamphylia at Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost (2:10).

Pan: a vessel of metal or earthenware used in culinary operations; a cooking-pan or frying-pan frequently referred to in the Old Testament (Lev. 2:5; 6:21; Num. 11:8; 1 Sam. 2:14, etc.).

Pannag: (Ezek. 27:17; marg. R.V., 'perhaps a kind of confection') the Jews explain as the name of a kind of sweet pastry. Others take it as the name of some place, identifying it with Pingi, on the road between Damascus and Baalbec. 'Pannaga' is the Sanscrit name of an aromatic plant (comp. Gen. 43:11).

Paper: The expression in the Authorized Version (Isa. 19:7), 'the paper reeds by the brooks,' is in the Revised Version more correctly 'the meadows by the Nile.' The words undoubtedly refer to a grassy place on the banks of the Nile fit for pasturage.

Paphos: the capital of the island of Cyprus, and therefore the residence of the Roman governor. It was visited by Paul and Barnabas on their first missionary tour (Acts 13:6). It is new Paphos which is here meant. It lay on the west coast of the island, about 8 miles north of old Paphos. Its modern name is Baffa.

Parable: (Gr. parabole), a placing beside; a comparison; equivalent to the Heb. mashal, a similitude. In the Old Testament this is used to denote (1) a proverb (1 Sam. 10:12; 24:13; 2 Chr. 7:20), (2) a prophetic utterance (Num. 23:7; Ezek. 20:49), (3) an enigmatic saying (Ps. 78:2; Prov. 1:6). In the New Testament, (1) a proverb (Mark 7:17; Luke 4:23), (2) a typical emblem (Heb. 9:9; 11:19), (3) a similitude or allegory (Matt. 15:15; 24:32; Mark 3:23; Luke 5:36; 14:7); (4) ordinarily, in a more restricted sense, a comparison of earthly with heavenly things, 'an earthly story with a heavenly meaning,' as in the parables of our Lord.

Paradise: a Persian word (pardes), properly meaning a 'pleasure-ground' or 'park' or 'king's garden.' (See EDEN.) It came in course of time to be used as a name for the world of happiness and rest hereafter (Luke 23:43; 2 Cor. 12:4; Rev. 2:7). For 'garden' in Gen. 2:8 the LXX. has 'paradise.'

Parah: the heifer, a town in Benjamin (Josh. 18:23), supposed to be identical with the ruins called Far'ah, about 6 miles north-east of Jerusalem, in the Wady Far'ah, which is a branch of the Wady Kelt.

Paran: abounding in foliage, or abounding in caverns, (Gen. 21:21), a desert tract forming the north-eastern division of the peninsula of Sinai, lying between the 'Arabah on the east and the wilderness of Shur on the west. It is intersected in a north-western direction by the Wady el-'Arish. It bears the modern name of Badiet et-Tih, i.e., 'the desert of the wanderings.' This district, through which the children of Israel wandered, lay three days' march from Sinai (Num. 10:12, 33). From Kadesh, in this wilderness, spies (q.v.) were sent to spy the land (13:3, 26). Here, long afterwards, David found refuge from Saul (1 Sam. 25:1, 4).

Paran, Mount: probably the hilly region or upland wilderness on the north of the desert of Paran forming the southern boundary of the Promised Land (Deut. 33:2; Hab. 3:3).

Parbar: (1 Chr. 26:18), a place apparently connected with the temple, probably a 'suburb' (q.v.), as the word is rendered in 2 Kings 23:11; a space between the temple wall and the wall of the court; an open portico into which the chambers of the official persons opened (1 Chr. 26:18).

Parched ground: (Isa. 35:7), Heb. sharab, a 'mirage', a phenomenon caused by the refraction of the rays of the sun on the glowing sands of the desert, causing them suddenly to assume the appearance of a beautiful lake. It is called by the modern Arabs by the same Hebrew name _serab_.

Parchment: a skin prepared for writing on; so called from Pergamos (q.v.), where this was first done (2 Tim. 4:13).

Pardon: the forgiveness of sins granted freely (Isa. 43:25), readily (Neh. 9:17; Ps. 86:5), abundantly (Isa. 55:7; Rom. 5:20). Pardon is an act of a sovereign, in pure sovereignty, granting simply a remission of the penalty due to sin, but securing neither honour nor reward to the pardoned. Justification (q.v.), on the other hand, is the act of a judge, and not of a sovereign, and includes pardon and, at the same time, a title to all the rewards and blessings promised in the covenant of life.

Parlour: (from the Fr. parler, 'to speak') denotes an 'audience chamber,' but that is not the import of the Hebrew word so rendered. It corresponds to what the Turks call a kiosk, as in Judg. 3:20 (the 'summer parlour'), or as in the margin of the Revised Version ('the upper chamber of cooling'), a small room built on the roof of the house, with open windows to catch the breeze, and having a door communicating with the outside by which persons seeking an audience may be admitted. While Eglon was resting in such a parlour, Ehud, under pretence of having a message from God to him, was admitted into his presence, and murderously plunged his dagger into his body (21, 22).

Parmashta: strong-fisted, a son of Haman, slain in Shushan (Esther 9:9).

Parmenas: constant, one of the seven 'deacons' (Acts 6:5).

Parshandatha: an interpreter of the law, the eldest of Haman's sons, slain in Shushan (Esther 9:7).

Parthians: were present in Jerusalem at Pentecost (Acts 2:9). Parthia lay on the east of Media and south of Hyrcania, which separated it from the Caspian Sea. It corresponded with the western half of the modern Khorasan, and now forms a part of Persia.

Partridge: (Heb. kore, i.e., 'caller'). This bird, unlike our own partridge, is distinguished by 'its ringing call-note, which in early morning echoes from cliff to cliff amidst the barrenness of the wilderness of Judea and the glens of the forest of Carmel' hence its Hebrew name. This name occurs only twice in Scripture.

Paruah: flourishing, the father of Jehoshaphat, appointed to provide monthly supplies for Solomon from the tribe of Issachar (1 Kings 4:17).

Parvaim: the name of a country from which Solomon obtained gold for the temple (2 Chr. 3:6). Some have identified it with Ophir, but it is uncertain whether it is even the name of a place. It may simply, as some think, denote 'Oriental regions.'

Pas-dammim: the border of blood = Ephes-dammim (q.v.), between Shochoh and Azekah (1 Sam. 17:1; 1 Chr. 11:13).

Pasach: clearing, one of the sons of Japhlet, of the tribe of Asher (1 Chr. 7:33).

Pashur: release. (1.) The son of Immer (probably the same as Amariah, Neh. 10:3; 12:2), the head of one of the priestly courses, was 'chief governor [Heb. paqid nagid, meaning 'deputy governor'] of the temple' (Jer. 20:1, 2). At this time the _nagid_, or 'governor,' of the temple was Seraiah the high priest (1 Chr. 6:14), and Pashur was his _paqid_, or 'deputy.' Enraged at the plainness with which Jeremiah uttered his solemn warnings of coming judgements, because of the abounding iniquity of the times, Pashur ordered the temple police to seize him, and after inflicting on him corporal punishment (forty stripes save one, Deut. 25:3; comp. 2 Cor. 11:24), to put him in the stocks in the high gate of Benjamin, where he remained all night. On being set free in the morning, Jeremiah went to Pashur (Jer. 20:3, 5), and announced to him that God had changed his name to Magor-missabib, i.e., 'terror on every side.' The punishment that fell upon him was probably remorse, when he saw the ruin he had brought upon his country by advising a close alliance with Egypt in opposition to the counsels of Jeremiah (20:4-6). He was carried captive to Babylon, and died there.

Passage: denotes in Josh. 22:11, as is generally understood, the place where the children of Israel passed over Jordan. The words 'the passage of' are, however, more correctly rendered 'by the side of,' or 'at the other side of,' thus designating the position of the great altar erected by the eastern tribes on their return home. This word also designates the fords of the Jordan to the south of the Sea of Galilee (Judg. 12:5, 6), and a pass or rocky defile (1 Sam. 13:23; 14:4). 'Passages' in Jer. 22:20 is in the Revised Version more correctly 'Abarim' (q.v.), a proper name.

Passion: Only once found, in Acts 1:3, meaning suffering, referring to the sufferings of our Lord.

Passover: the name given to the chief of the three great historical annual festivals of the Jews. It was kept in remembrance of the Lord's passing over the houses of the Israelites (Ex. 12:13) when the first born of all the Egyptians were destroyed. It is called also the 'feast of unleavened bread' (Ex. 23:15; Mark 14:1; Acts 12:3), because during its celebration no leavened bread was to be eaten or even kept in the household (Ex. 12:15). The word afterwards came to denote the lamb that was slain at the feast (Mark 14:12-14; 1 Cor. 5:7).

Patara: a city on the south-west coast of Lycia at which Paul landed on his return from his third missionary journey (Acts 21:1, 2). Here he found a larger vessel, which was about to sail across the open sea to the coast of Phoenicia. In this vessel he set forth, and reached the city of Tyre in perhaps two or three days.

Pathros: the name generally given to Upper Egypt (the Thebaid of the Greeks), as distinguished from Matsor, or Lower Egypt (Isa. 11:11; Jer. 44:1, 15; Ezek. 30:14), the two forming Mizraim. After the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, colonies of Jews settled 'in the country of Pathros' and other parts of Egypt.

Patmos: a small rocky and barren island, one of the group called the 'Sporades,' in the AEgean Sea. It is mentioned in Scripture only in Rev. 1:9. It was on this island, to which John was banished by the emperor Domitian (A.D. 95), that he received from God the wondrous revelation recorded in his book. This has naturally invested it with the deepest interest for all time. It is now called Patmo. (See JOHN.)

Patriarch: a name employed in the New Testament with reference to Abraham (Heb. 7:4), the sons of Jacob (Acts 7:8, 9), and to David (2:29). This name is generally applied to the progenitors of families or 'heads of the fathers' (Josh. 14:1) mentioned in Scripture, and they are spoken of as antediluvian (from Adam to Noah) and post-diluvian (from Noah to Jacob) patriachs. But the expression 'the patriarch,' by way of eminence, is applied to the twelve sons of Jacob, or to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.

Patrobas: a Christian at Rome to whom Paul sent salutations (Rom. 16:14).

Pau: (Gen. 36:39) or Pai (1 Chr. 1:50), bleating, an Edomitish city ruled over by Hadar.

Paul: =Saul (q.v.) was born about the same time as our Lord. His circumcision-name was Saul, and probably the name Paul was also given to him in infancy 'for use in the Gentile world,' as 'Saul' would be his Hebrew home-name. He was a native of Tarsus, the capital of Cilicia, a Roman province in the south-east of Asia Minor. That city stood on the banks of the river Cydnus, which was navigable thus far; hence it became a centre of extensive commercial traffic with many countries along the shores of the Mediterranean, as well as with the countries of central Asia Minor. It thus became a city distinguished for the wealth of its inhabitants.

Pavement: It was the custom of the Roman governors to erect their tribunals in open places, as the market-place, the circus, or even the highway. Pilate caused his seat of judgment to be set down in a place called 'the Pavement' (John 19:13) i.e., a place paved with a mosaic of coloured stones. It was probably a place thus prepared in front of the 'judgment hall.' (See GABBATHA

Pavilion: a tent or tabernacle (2 Sam. 22:12; 1 Kings 20:12-16), or enclosure (Ps. 18:11; 27:5). In Jer. 43:10 it probably denotes the canopy suspended over the judgement-seat of the king.

Peace offerings: (Heb. shelamim), detailed regulations regarding given in Lev. 3; 7:11-21, 29-34. They were of three kinds, (1) eucharistic or thanksgiving offerings, expressive of gratitude for blessings received; (2) in fulfilment of a vow, but expressive also of thanks for benefits recieved; and (3) free-will offerings, something spontaneously devoted to God.

Peacock: (Heb. tuk, apparently borrowed from the Tamil tokei). This bird is indigenous to India. It was brought to Solomon by his ships from Tarshish (1 Kings 10:22; 2 Chr. 9:21), which in this case was probably a district on the Malabar coast of India, or in Ceylon. The word so rendered in Job 39:13 literally means wild, tumultuous crying, and properly denotes the female ostrich (q.v.).

Pearl: (Heb. gabish, Job 28:18; Gr. margarites, Matt. 7:6; 13:46; Rev. 21:21). The pearl oyster is found in the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea. Its shell is the 'mother of pearl,' which is of great value for ornamental purposes (1 Tim. 2:9; Rev. 17:4). Each shell contains eight or ten pearls of various sizes.

Peculiar: as used in the phrase 'peculiar people' in 1 Pet. 2:9, is derived from the Lat. peculium, and denotes, as rendered in the Revised Version ('a people for God's own possession'), a special possession or property. The church is the 'property' of God, his 'purchased possession' (Eph. 1:14; R.V., 'God's own possession').

Pedahel: redeemed of God, the son of Ammihud, a prince of Naphtali (Num. 34:28).

Pedahzur: rock of redemption, the father of Gamaliel and prince of Manasseh at the time of the Exodus (Num. 1:10; 2:20).

Pedaiah: redemption of the Lord. (1.) The father of Zebudah, who was the wife of Josiah and mother of king Jehoiakim (2 Kings 23:36).

Pekah: open-eyed, the son of Remaliah a captain in the army of Pekahiah, king of Israel, whom he slew, with the aid of a band of Gileadites, and succeeded (B.C. 758) on the throne (2 Kings 15:25). Seventeen years after this he entered into an alliance with Rezin, king of Syria, and took part with him in besieging Jerusalem (2 Kings 15:37; 16:5). But Tiglath-pilser, who was in alliance with Ahaz, king of Judah, came up against Pekah, and carried away captive many of the inhabitants of his kingdom (2 Kings 15:29). This was the beginning of the 'Captivity.' Soon after this Pekah was put to death by Hoshea, the son of Elah, who usurped the throne (2 Kings 15:30; 16:1-9. Comp. Isa. 7:16; 8:4; 9:12). He is supposed by some to have been the 'shephard' mentioned in Zech. 11:16.

Pekahiah: the Lord opened his eyes, the son and successor of Menahem on the throne of Israel. He was murdered in the royal palace of Samaria by Pekah, one of the captains of his army (2 Kings 15:23-26), after a reign of two years (B.C. 761-759). He 'did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord.'

Pekod: probably a place in Babylonia (Jer. 50:21; Ezek. 23:23). It is the opinion, however, of some that this word signifies 'visitation,' 'punishment,' and allegorically 'designates Babylon as the city which was to be destroyed.'

Pelaiah: distinguished of the Lord. (1.) One of David's posterity (1 Chr. 3:24).

Pelatiah: deliverance of the Lord. (1.) A son of Hananiah and grandson of Zerubbabel (1 Chr. 3:21).

Peleg: division, one of the sons of Eber; so called because 'in his days was the earth divided' (Gen. 10:25). Possibly he may have lived at the time of the dispersion from Babel. But more probably the reference is to the dispersion of the two races which sprang from Eber, the one spreading towards Mesopotamia and Syria, and the other southward into Arabia.

Pelet: deliverance. (1.) A descendant of Judah (1 Chr. 2:47).

Peleth: swiftness. (1.) A Reubenite whose son was one of the conspirators against Moses and Aaron (Num. 16:1).

Pelethites: mentioned always along with the Cherethites, and only in the time of David. The word probably means 'runners' or 'couriers,' and may denote that while forming part of David's bodyguard, they were also sometimes employed as couriers (2 Sam. 8:18; 20:7, 23;1 Kings 1:38, 44; 1 Chr. 18:17). Some, however, think that these are the names simply of two Philistine tribes from which David selected his body-guard. They are mentioned along with the Gittites (2 Sam. 15:18), another body of foreign troops whom David gathered round him.

Pelicans: are frequently met with at the waters of Merom and the Sea of Galilee. The pelican is ranked among unclean birds (Lev. 11:18; Deut. 14:17). It is of an enormous size, being about 6 feet long, with wings stretching out over 12 feet. The Hebrew name (kaath, i.e., 'vomiter') of this bird is incorrectly rendered 'cormorant' in the Authorized Version of Isa. 34:11 and Zeph. 2:14, but correctly in the Revised Version. It receives its Hebrew name from its habit of storing in its pouch large quantities of fish, which it disgorges when it feeds its young. Two species are found on the Syrian coast, the Pelicanus onocrotalus, or white pelican, and the Pelicanus crispus, or Dalmatian pelican.

Penny: (Gr. denarion), a silver coin of the value of about 7 1/2d. or 8d. of our present money. It is thus rendered in the New Testament, and is more frequently mentioned than any other coin (Matt. 18:28; 20:2, 9, 13; Mark 6:37; 14:5, etc.). It was the daily pay of a Roman soldier in the time of Christ. In the reign of Edward III. an English penny was a labourer's day's wages. This was the 'tribute money' with reference to which our Lord said, 'Whose image and superscription is this?' When they answered, 'Caesar's,' he replied, 'Render therefore to Caesar the things that are Caesar's; and to God the things that are God's' (Matt. 22:19; Mark 12:15).

Pentateuch: the five-fold volume, consisting of the first five books of the Old Testament. This word does not occur in Scripture, nor is it certainly known when the roll was thus divided into five portions Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy. Probably that was done by the LXX. translators. Some modern critics speak of a Hexateuch, introducing the Book of Joshua as one of the group. But this book is of an entirely different character from the other books, and has a different author. It stands by itself as the first of a series of historical books beginning with the entrance of the Israelites into Canaan. (See JOSHUA.)

Pentecost: i.e., 'fiftieth', found only in the New Testament (Acts 2:1; 20:16; 1 Cor. 16:8). The festival so named is first spoken of in Ex. 23:16 as 'the feast of harvest,' and again in Ex. 34:22 as 'the day of the firstfruits' (Num. 28:26). From the sixteenth of the month of Nisan (the second day of the Passover), seven complete weeks, i.e., forty-nine days, were to be reckoned, and this feast was held on the fiftieth day. The manner in which it was to be kept is described in Lev. 23:15-19; Num. 28:27-29. Besides the sacrifices prescribed for the occasion, every one was to bring to the Lord his 'tribute of a free-will offering' (Deut. 16:9-11). The purpose of this feast was to commemorate the completion of the grain harvest. Its distinguishing feature was the offering of 'two leavened loaves' made from the new corn of the completed harvest, which, with two lambs, were waved before the Lord as a thank offering.

Penuel: face of God, a place not far from Succoth, on the east of the Jordan and north of the river Jabbok. It is also called 'Peniel.' Here Jacob wrestled (Gen. 32:24-32) 'with a man' ('the angel', Hos. 12:4. Jacob says of him, 'I have seen God face to face') 'till the break of day.'

Peor: opening. (1.) A mountain peak (Num. 23:28) to which Balak led Balaam as a last effort to induce him to pronounce a curse upon Israel. When he looked on the tribes encamped in the acacia groves below him, he could not refrain from giving utterance to a remarkable benediction (24:1-9). Balak was more than ever enraged at Balaam, and bade him flee for his life. But before he went he gave expression to that wonderful prediction regarding the future of this mysterious people, whose 'goodly tents' were spread out before him, and the coming of a 'Star' out of Jacob and a 'Sceptre' out of Israel (24:14-17).

Perazim, Mount: mount of breaches, only in Isa. 28:21. It is the same as BAAL-PERAZIM (q.v.), where David gained a victory over the Philistines (2 Sam. 5:20).

Peres: divided, one of the mysterious words 'written over against the candlestick upon the plaster of the wall' of king Belshazzar's palace (Dan. 5:28). (See MENE.)

Perez: =Pharez, (q.v.), breach, the son of Judah (Neh. 11:4). 'The chief of all the captains of the host for the first month' in the reign of David was taken from his family (1 Chr. 27:3). Four hundred and sixty-eight of his 'sons' came back from captivity with Zerubbabel, who himself was one of them (1 Chr. 9:4; Neh. 11:6).

Perez-uzzah: the breach of Uzzah, a place where God 'burst forth upon Uzzah, so that he died,' when he rashly 'took hold' of the ark (2 Sam. 6:6-8). It was not far from Kirjath-jearim (q.v.).

Perfection: See SANCTIFICATION.

Perfumes: were used in religious worship, and for personal and domestic enjoyment (Ex. 30:35-37; Prov. 7:17; Cant. 3:6; Isa. 57:9); and also in embalming the dead, and in other funeral ceremonies (Mark 14:8; Luke 24:1; John 19:39).

Perga: the capital of Pamphylia, on the coast of Asia Minor. Paul and his companions landed at this place from Cyprus on their first missionary journey (Acts 13:13, 14), and here Mark forsook the party and returned to Jerusalem. Some time afterwards Paul and Barnabas again visited this city and 'preached the word' (14:25). It stood on the banks of the river Cestrus, some 7 miles from its mouth, and was a place of some commercial importance. It is now a ruin, called Eski Kalessi.

Pergamos: the chief city of Mysia, in Asia Minor. One of the 'seven churches' was planted here (Rev. 1:11; 2:17). It was noted for its wickedness, insomuch that our Lord says 'Satan's seat' was there. The church of Pergamos was rebuked for swerving from the truth and embracing the doctrines of Balaam and the Nicolaitanes. Antipas, Christ's 'faithful martyr,' here sealed his testimony with his blood.

Perida: kernel, Neh. 7:57. (See PERUDA.)

Perizzites: villagers; dwellers in the open country, the Canaanitish nation inhabiting the fertile regions south and south-west of Carmel. 'They were the graziers, farmers, and peasants of the time.' They were to be driven out of the land by the descendants of Abraham (Gen. 15:20; Ex. 3:8, 17; 23:23; 33:2; 34:11). They are afterwards named among the conquered tribes (Josh. 24:11). Still lingering in the land, however, they were reduced to servitude by Solomon (1 Kings 9:20).

Persecution: The first great persecution for religious opinion of which we have any record was that which broke out against the worshippers of God among the Jews in the days of Ahab, when that king, at the instigation of his wife Jezebel, 'a woman in whom, with the reckless and licentious habits of an Oriental queen, were united the fiercest and sternest qualities inherent in the old Semitic race', sought in the most relentless manner to extirpate the worship of Jehovah and substitute in its place the worship of Ashtoreth and Baal. Ahab's example in this respect was followed by Manasseh, who 'shed innocent blood very much, till he had filled Jerusalem from one end to another' (2 Kings 21:16; comp. 24:4). In all ages, in one form or another, the people of God have had to suffer persecution. In its earliest history the Christian church passed through many bloody persecutions. Of subsequent centuries in our own and in other lands the same sad record may be made.

Perseverance of the saints: their certain continuance in a state of grace. Once justified and regenerated, the believer can neither totally nor finally fall away from grace, but will certainly persevere therein and attain everlasting life.

Persia: an ancient empire, extending from the Indus to Thrace, and from the Caspian Sea to the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. The Persians were originally a Medic tribe which settled in Persia, on the eastern side of the Persian Gulf. They were Aryans, their language belonging to the eastern division of the Indo-European group. One of their chiefs, Teispes, conquered Elam in the time of the decay of the Assyrian Empire, and established himself in the district of Anzan. His descendants branched off into two lines, one line ruling in Anzan, while the other remained in Persia. Cyrus II., king of Anzan, finally united the divided power, conquered Media, Lydia, and Babylonia, and carried his arms into the far East. His son, Cambyses, added Egypt to the empire, which, however, fell to pieces after his death. It was reconquered and thoroughly organized by Darius, the son of Hystaspes, whose dominions extended from India to the Danube.

Persis: a female Christian at Rome whom Paul salutes (Rom. 16:12). She is spoken of as 'beloved,' and as having 'laboured much in the Lord.'

Peruda: one whose descendants returned with Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:55); called also Perida (Neh. 7:57).

Peter: originally called Simon (=Simeon ,i.e., 'hearing'), a very common Jewish name in the New Testament. He was the son of Jona (Matt. 16:17). His mother is nowhere named in Scripture. He had a younger brother called Andrew, who first brought him to Jesus (John 1:40-42). His native town was Bethsaida, on the western coast of the Sea of Galilee, to which also Philip belonged. Here he was brought up by the shores of the Sea of Galilee, and was trained to the occupation of a fisher. His father had probably died while he was still young, and he and his brother were brought up under the care of Zebedee and his wife Salome (Matt. 27:56; Mark 15:40; 16:1). There the four youths, Simon, Andrew, James, and John, spent their boyhood and early manhood in constant fellowship. Simon and his brother doubtless enjoyed all the advantages of a religious training, and were early instructed in an acquaintance with the Scriptures and with the great prophecies regarding the coming of the Messiah. They did not probably enjoy, however, any special training in the study of the law under any of the rabbis. When Peter appeared before the Sanhedrin, he looked like an 'unlearned man' (Acts 4:13).

Peter, First Epistle of: This epistle is addressed to 'the strangers scattered abroad', i.e., to the Jews of the Dispersion (the Diaspora).

Peter, Second Epistle of: The question of the authenticity of this epistle has been much discussed, but the weight of evidence is wholly in favour of its claim to be the production of the apostle whose name it bears. It appears to have been written shortly before the apostle's death (1:14). This epistle contains eleven references to the Old Testament. It also contains (3:15, 16) a remarkable reference to Paul's epistles. Some think this reference is to 1 Thess. 4:13-5:11. A few years ago, among other documents, a parchment fragment, called the 'Gospel of Peter,' was discovered in a Christian tomb at Akhmim in Upper Egypt. Origen (obiit A.D. 254), Eusebius (obiit 340), and Jerome (obiit 420) refer to such a work, and hence it has been concluded that it was probably written about the middle of the second century. It professes to give a history of our Lord's resurrection and ascension. While differing in not a few particulars from the canonical Gospels, the writer shows plainly that he was acquinted both with the synoptics and with the Gospel of John. Though apocryphal, it is of considerable value as showing that the main facts of the history of our Lord were then widely known.

Pethahiah: loosed of the Lord. (1.) The chief of one of the priestly courses (the nineteenth) in the time of David (1 Chr. 24:16). (2.) A Levite (Ezra 10:23). (3.) Neh. 9:5. (4.) A descendant of Judah who had some office at the court of Persia (Neh. 11:24).

Pethor: interpretation of dreams, identified with Pitru, on the west bank of the Euphrates, a few miles south of the Hittite capital of Carchemish (Num. 22:5, 'which is by the river of the land of the children of [the god] Ammo'). (See BALAAM.)

Pethuel: vision of God, the father of Joel the prophet (Joel 1:1).

Poison: (1.) Heb. hemah, 'heat,' the poison of certain venomous reptiles (Deut. 32:24, 33; Job 6:4; Ps. 58:4), causing inflammation.

Pomegranate: i.e., 'grained apple' (pomum granatum), Heb. rimmon. Common in Egypt (Num. 20:5) and Palestine (13:23; Deut. 8:8). The Romans called it Punicum malum, i.e., Carthaginian apple, because they received it from Carthage. It belongs to the myrtle family of trees. The withering of the pomegranate tree is mentioned among the judgments of God (Joel 1:12). It is frequently mentioned in the Song of Solomon (Cant. 4:3, 13, etc.). The skirt of the high priest's blue robe and ephod was adorned with the representation of pomegranates, alternating with golden bells (Ex. 28:33,34), as also were the 'chapiters upon the two pillars' (1 Kings 7:20) which 'stood before the house.'

Pommels: (2 Chr. 4:12, 13), or bowls (1 Kings 7:41), were balls or 'rounded knobs' on the top of the chapiters (q.v.).

Pontius Pilate: See PILATE.

Pontus: a province of Asia Minor, stretching along the southern coast of the Euxine Sea, corresponding nearly to the modern province of Trebizond. In the time of the apostles it was a Roman province. Strangers from this province were at Jerusalem at Pentecost (Acts 2:9), and to 'strangers scattered throughout Pontus,' among others, Peter addresses his first epistle (1 Pet. 1:1). It was evidently the resort of many Jews of the Dispersion. Aquila was a native of Pontus (Acts 18:2).

Pool: a pond, or reservoir, for holding water (Heb. berekhah; modern Arabic, birket), an artificial cistern or tank. Mention is made of the pool of Gibeon (2 Sam. 2:13); the pool of Hebron (4:12); the upper pool at Jerusalem (2 Kings 18:17; 20:20); the pool of Samaria (1 Kings 22:38); the king's pool (Neh. 2:14); the pool of Siloah (Neh. 3:15; Eccles. 2:6); the fishpools of Heshbon (Cant. 7:4); the 'lower pool,' and the 'old pool' (Isa. 22:9,11).

Pools of Solomon: the name given to three large open cisterns at Etam, at the head of the Wady Urtas, having an average length of 400 feet by 220 in breadth, and 20 to 30 in depth. These pools derive their chief supply of water from a spring called 'the sealed fountain,' about 200 yards to the north-west of the upper pool, to which it is conveyed by a large subterranean passage. They are 150 feet distant from each other, and each pool is 20 feet lower than that above it, the conduits being so arranged that the lowest, which is the largest and finest of the three, is filled first, and then in succession the others. It has been estimated that these pools cover in all a space of about 7 acres, and are capable of containing three million gallons of water. They were, as is generally supposed, constructed in the days of Solomon. They are probably referred to in Eccles. 2:6. On the fourth day after his victory over the Ammonites, etc., in the wilderness of Tekoa, Jehoshaphat assembled his army in the valley of Berachah ('blessing'), and there blessed the Lord. Berachah has been identified with the modern Bereikut, some 5 miles south of Wady Urtas, and hence the 'valley of Berachah' may be this valley of pools, for the word means both 'blessing' and 'pools;' and it has been supposed, therefore, that this victory was celebrated beside Solomon's pools (2 Chr. 20:26).

Poor: The Mosaic legislation regarding the poor is specially important. (1.) They had the right of gleaning the fields (Lev. 19:9, 10; Deut. 24:19,21).

Poplar: Heb. libneh, 'white', (Gen. 30:37; Hos. 4:13), in all probability the storax tree (Styrax officinalis) or white poplar, distinguished by its white blossoms and pale leaves. It is common in the Anti-Libanus. Other species of the poplar are found in Palestine, such as the white poplar (P. alba) of our own country, the black poplar (P. nigra), and the aspen (P. tremula). (See WILLOW.)

Porch, Solomon's: a colonnade on the east of the temple, so called from a tradition that it was a relic of Solomon's temple left standing after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians. (Comp. 1 Kings 7:6.) The word 'porch' is in the New Testament the rendering of three different Greek words:

Porcius Festus: See FESTUS.

Porter: a gate-keeper (2 Sam. 18:26; 2 Kings 7:10; 1 Chr. 9:21; 2 Chr. 8:14). Of the Levites, 4,000 were appointed as porters by David (1 Chr. 23:5), who were arranged according to their families (26:1-19) to take charge of the doors and gates of the temple. They were sometimes employed as musicians (1 Chr. 15:18).

Post: (1.) A runner, or courier, for the rapid transmission of letters, etc. (2 Chr. 30:6; Esther 3:13, 15; 8:10, 14; Job 9:25; Jer. 51:31). Such messengers were used from very early times. Those employed by the Hebrew kings had a military character (1 Sam. 22:17; 2 Kings 10:25, 'guard,' marg. 'runners'). The modern system of postal communication was first established by Louis XI. of France in A.D. 1464.

Potiphar: dedicated to Ra; i.e., to the sun-god, the Egyptian to whom the Ishmaelites sold Joseph (Gen. 39:1). He was 'captain of the guard', i.e., chief, probably, of the state police, who, while they formed part of the Egyptian army, were also largely employed in civil duties (37:36; marg., 'chief of the executioners'). Joseph, though a foreigner, gradually gained his confidence, and became overseer over all his possessions. Believing the false accusation which his profligate wife brought against Joseph, Potiphar cast him into prison, where he remained for some years. (See JOSEPH.)

Potipherah: a priest of On, whose daughter Asenath became Joseph's wife (Gen. 41:45).

Potsherd: a 'shred', i.e., anything severed, as a fragment of earthenware (Job 2:8; Prov. 26:23; Isa. 45:9).

Pottage: Heb. nazid, 'boiled', a dish of boiled food, as of lentils (Gen. 25:29; 2 Kings 4:38).

Potters field: the name given to the piece of ground which was afterwards bought with the money that had been given to Judas. It was called the 'field of blood' (Matt. 27:7-10). Tradition places it in the valley of Hinnom. (See ACELDAMA.)

Pottery: the art of, was early practised among all nations. Various materials seem to have been employed by the potter. Earthenware is mentioned in connection with the history of Melchizedek (Gen. 14:18), of Abraham (18:4-8), of Rebekah (27:14), of Rachel (29:2, 3, 8, 10). The potter's wheel is mentioned by Jeremiah (18:3). See also 1 Chr. 4:23; Ps. 2:9; Isa. 45:9; 64:8; Jer. 19:1; Lam. 4:2; Zech. 11:13; Rom. 9:21.

Pound: (1.) A weight. Heb. maneh, equal to 100 shekels (1 Kings 10:17; Ezra 2:69; Neh. 7:71, 72). Gr. litra, equal to about 12 oz. avoirdupois (John 12:3; 19:39).

Praetorium: The Greek word (praitorion) thus rendered in Mark 15:16 is rendered 'common hall' (Matt. 27:27, marg., 'governor's house'), 'judgment hall,' (John 18:28, 33, marg., 'Pilate's house', 19:9; Acts 23:35), 'palace' (Phil. 1:13). This is properly a military word. It denotes (1) the general's tent or headquarters; (2) the governor's residence, as in Acts 23:35 (R.V., 'palace'); and (3) the praetorian guard (See PALACE), or the camp or quarters of the praetorian cohorts (Acts 28:16), the imperial guards in immediate attendance on the emperor, who was 'praetor' or commander-in-chief.

Prayer: is converse with God; the intercourse of the soul with God, not in contemplation or meditation, but in direct address to him. Prayer may be oral or mental, occasional or constant, ejaculatory or formal. It is a 'beseeching the Lord' (Ex. 32:11); 'pouring out the soul before the Lord' (1 Sam. 1:15); 'praying and crying to heaven' (2 Chr. 32:20); 'seeking unto God and making supplication' (Job 8:5); 'drawing near to God' (Ps. 73:28); 'bowing the knees' (Eph. 3:14).

Predestination: This word is properly used only with reference to God's plan or purpose of salvation. The Greek word rendered 'predestinate' is found only in these six passages, Acts 4:28; Rom. 8:29, 30; 1 Cor. 2:7; Eph. 1:5, 11; and in all of them it has the same meaning. They teach that the eternal, sovereign, immutable, and unconditional decree or 'determinate purpose' of God governs all events.

Presidents: Three presidents are mentioned, of whom Daniel was the first (Dan. 6:2-7). The name in the original is _sarkhin_, probably a Persian word meaning perfects or ministers.

Priest: The Heb. kohen, Gr. hierus, Lat. sacerdos, always denote one who offers sacrifices.

Prince: the title generally applied to the chief men of the state. The 'princes of the provinces' (1 Kings 20:14) were the governors or lord-lieutenants of the provinces. So also the 'princes' mentioned in Dan. 6:1, 3, 4, 6, 7 were the officers who administered the affairs of the provinces; the 'satraps' (as rendered in R.V.). These are also called 'lieutenants' (Esther 3:12; 8:9; R.V., 'satraps'). The promised Saviour is called by Daniel (9:25) 'Messiah the Prince' (Heb. nagid); compare Acts 3:15; 5:31. The angel Micheal is called (Dan. 12:1) a 'prince' (Heb. sar, whence 'Sarah,' the 'princes').

Priscilla: the wife of Aquila (Acts 18:2), who is never mentioned without her. Her name sometimes takes the precedence of his (Rom. 16:3; 2 Tim. 4:19). She took part with Aquila (q.v.) in insturcting Apollos (Acts 18:26).

Prison: The first occasion on which we read of a prison is in the history of Joseph in Egypt. Then Potiphar, 'Joseph's master, took him, and put him into the prison, a place where the king's prisoners were bound' (Gen. 39:20-23). The Heb. word here used (sohar) means properly a round tower or fortress. It seems to have been a part of Potiphar's house, a place in which state prisoners were kept.

Prophecy: or prediction, was one of the functions of the prophet. It has been defined as a 'miracle of knowledge, a declaration or description or representation of something future, beyond the power of human sagacity to foresee, discern, or conjecture.' (See PROPHET.)

Prophet: (Heb. nabi, from a root meaning 'to bubble forth, as from a fountain,' hence 'to utter', comp. Ps. 45:1). This Hebrew word is the first and the most generally used for a prophet. In the time of Samuel another word, _ro'eh_, 'seer', began to be used (1 Sam. 9:9). It occurs seven times in reference to Samuel. Afterwards another word, _hozeh_, 'seer' (2 Sam. 24:11), was employed. In 1 Ch. 29:29 all these three words are used: 'Samuel the seer (ro'eh), Nathan the prophet (nabi'), Gad the seer' (hozeh). In Josh. 13:22 Balaam is called (Heb.) a _kosem_ 'diviner,' a word used only of a false prophet.

Propitiation: that by which God is rendered propitious, i.e., by which it becomes consistent with his character and government to pardon and bless the sinner. The propitiation does not procure his love or make him loving; it only renders it consistent for him to execise his love towards sinners.

Proportion of faith: (Rom. 12:6). Paul says here that each one was to exercise his gift of prophecy, i.e., of teaching, 'according to the proportion of faith.' The meaning is, that the utterances of the 'prophet' were not to fluctuate according to his own impulses or independent thoughts, but were to be adjusted to the truth revealed to him as a beliver, i.e., were to be in accordance with it.

Proselyte: is used in the LXX. for 'stranger' (1 Chr. 22:2), i.e., a comer to Palestine; a sojourner in the land (Ex. 12:48; 20:10; 22:21), and in the New Testament for a convert to Judaism. There were such converts from early times (Isa. 56:3; Neh. 10:28; Esther 8:17). The law of Moses made specific regulations regarding the admission into the Jewish church of such as were not born Israelites (Ex. 20:10; 23:12; 12:19, 48; Deut. 5:14; 16:11, 14, etc.). The Kenites, the Gibeonites, the Cherethites, and the Pelethites were thus admitted to the privileges of Israelites. Thus also we hear of individual proselytes who rose to positions of prominence in Israel, as of Doeg the Edomite, Uriah the Hittite, Araunah the Jebusite, Zelek the Ammonite, Ithmah and Ebedmelech the Ethiopians.

Proverb: a trite maxim; a similitude; a parable. The Hebrew word thus rendered (mashal) has a wide signification. It comes from a root meaning 'to be like,' 'parable.' Rendered 'proverb' in Isa. 14:4; Hab. 2:6; 'dark saying' in Ps. 49:4, Num. 12:8. Ahab's defiant words in answer to the insolent demands of Benhadad, 'Let not him that girdeth on his harness boast himself as he that putteth it off,' is a well known instance of a proverbial saying (1 Kings 20:11).

Proverbs, Book of: a collection of moral and philosophical maxims of a wide range of subjects presented in a poetic form. This book sets forth the 'philosophy of practical life. It is the sign to us that the Bible does not despise common sense and discretion. It impresses upon us in the most forcible manner the value of intelligence and prudence and of a good education. The whole strength of the Hebrew language and of the sacred authority of the book is thrown upon these homely truths. It deals, too, in that refined, discriminating, careful view of the finer shades of human character so often overlooked by theologians, but so necessary to any true estimate of human life' (Stanley's Jewish Church).

Providence: literally means foresight, but is generally used to denote God's preserving and governing all things by means of second causes (Ps. 18:35; 63:8; Acts 17:28; Col. 1:17; Heb. 1:3). God's providence extends to the natural world (Ps. 104:14; 135:5-7; Acts 14:17), the brute creation (Ps. 104:21-29; Matt. 6:26; 10:29), and the affairs of men (1 Chr. 16:31; Ps. 47:7; Prov. 21:1; Job 12:23; Dan. 2:21; 4:25), and of individuals (1 Sam. 2:6; Ps. 18:30; Luke 1:53; James 4:13-15). It extends also to the free actions of men (Ex. 12:36; 1 Sam. 24:9-15; Ps. 33:14, 15; Prov. 16:1; 19:21; 20:24; 21:1), and things sinful (2 Sam. 16:10; 24:1; Rom. 11:32; Acts 4:27, 28), as well as to their good actions (Phil. 2:13; 4:13; 2 Cor. 12:9, 10; Eph. 2:10; Gal. 5:22-25).

Psalms: The psalms are the production of various authors. 'Only a portion of the Book of Psalms claims David as its author. Other inspired poets in successive generations added now one now another contribution to the sacred collection, and thus in the wisdom of Providence it more completely reflects every phase of human emotion and circumstances than it otherwise could.' But it is specially to David and his contemporaries that we owe this precious book. In the 'titles' of the psalms, the genuineness of which there is no sufficient reason to doubt, 73 are ascribed to David. Peter and John (Acts 4:25) ascribe to him also the second psalm, which is one of the 48 that are anonymous. About two-thirds of the whole collection have been ascribed to David.

Psaltery: a musical instrument, supposed to have been a kind of lyre, or a harp with twelve strings. The Hebrew word nebhel, so rendered, is translated 'viol' in Isa. 5:12 (R.V., 'lute'); 14:11. In Dan. 3:5, 7, 10, 15, the word thus rendered is Chaldaic, pesanterin, which is supposed to be a word of Greek origin denoting an instrument of the harp kind.

Ptolemais: a maritime city of Galilee (Acts 21:7). It was originally called 'Accho' (q.v.), and received the name Ptolemais from Ptolemy Soter when he was in possession of Coele-Syria.

Puah: splendid. (1.) One of the two midwives who feared God, and refused to kill the Hebrew male children at their birth (Ex. 1:15-21).

Publican: one who farmed the taxes (e.g., Zacchaeus, Luke 19:2) to be levied from a town or district, and thus undertook to pay to the supreme government a certain amount. In order to collect the taxes, the publicans employed subordinates (5:27; 15:1; 18:10), who, for their own ends, were often guilty of extortion and peculation. In New Testament times these taxes were paid to the Romans, and hence were regarded by the Jews as a very heavy burden, and hence also the collectors of taxes, who were frequently Jews, were hated, and were usually spoken of in very opprobrious terms. Jesus was accused of being a 'friend of publicans and sinners' (Luke 7:34).

Publius: 'the chief man of the island' of Malta (Acts 28:7), who courteously entertained Paul and his shipwrecked companions for three days, till they found a more permanent place of residence; for they remained on the island for three months, till the stormy season had passed. The word here rendered 'chief man' (protos) is supposed by some to be properly a Maltese term, the official title of the governor.

Pudens: bashful, a Christian at Rome, who sent his greetings to Timothy (2 Tim. 4:21). (See CLAUDIA.)

Pul: (1.) An Assyrian king. It has been a question whether he was identical with Tiglath-pileser III. (q.v.), or was his predecessor. The weight of evidence is certainly in favour of their identity. Pul was the throne-name he bore in Babylonia as king of Babylon, and Tiglath-pileser the throne-name he bore as king of Assyria. He was the founder of what is called the second Assyrian empire. He consolidated and organized his conquests on a large scale. He subdued Northern Syria and Hamath, and the kings of Syria rendered him homage and paid him tribute. His ambition was to found in Western Asia a kingdom which should embrace the whole civilized world, having Nineveh as its centre. Menahem, king of Israel, gave him the enormous tribute of a thousand talents of silver, 'that his hand might be with him' (2 Kings 15:19; 1 Chr. 5:26). The fact that this tribute could be paid showed the wealthy condition of the little kingdom of Israel even in this age of disorder and misgovernment. Having reduced Syria, he turned his arms against Babylon, which he subdued. The Babylonian king was slain, and Babylon and other Chaldean cities were taken, and Pul assumed the title of 'King of Sumer [i.e., Shinar] and Accad.' He was succeeded by Shalmanezer IV.

Pulpit: (Neh. 8:4). (See EZRA.)

Pulse: (Dan. 1:12, 16), R.V. 'herbs,' vegetable food in general.

Punishment: The New Testament lays down the general principles of good government, but contains no code of laws for the punishment of offenders. Punishment proceeds on the principle that there is an eternal distinction between right and wrong, and that this distinction must be maintained for its own sake. It is not primarily intended for the reformation of criminals, nor for the purpose of deterring others from sin. These results may be gained, but crime in itself demands punishment. (See MURDER ; THEFT.)

Pur, Purim: a lot, lots, a festival instituted by the Jews (Esther 9:24-32) in ironical commemoration of Haman's consultation of the Pur (a Persian word), for the purpose of ascertaining the auspicious day for executing his cruel plot against their nation. It became a national institution by the common consent of the Jews, and is observed by them to the present day, on the 14th and 15th of the month Adar, a month before the Passover.

Purification: the process by which a person unclean, according to the Levitical law, and thereby cut off from the sanctuary and the festivals, was restored to the enjoyment of all these privileges.

Purse: (1.) Gr. balantion, a bag (Luke 10:4; 22:35, 36).

Put, Phut: (1.) One of the sons of Ham (Gen. 10:6).

Puteoli: a city on the coast of Campania, on the north shore of a bay running north from the Bay of Naples, at which Paul landed on his way to Rome, from which it was distant 170 miles. Here he tarried for seven days (Acts 28:13, 14). This was the great emporium for the Alexandrian corn ships. Here Paul and his companions began their journey, by the 'Appian Way,' to Rome. It is now called Pozzuoli. The remains of a huge amphitheatre, and of the quay at which Paul landed, may still be seen here.

Pygarg: Heb. dishon, 'springing', (Deut. 14:5), one of the animals permitted for food. It is supposed to be the Antelope addax. It is described as 'a large animal, over 3 1/2 feet high at the shoulder, and, with its gently-twisted horns, 2 1/2 feet long. Its colour is pure white, with the exception of a short black mane, and a tinge of tawny on the shoulders and back.', Tristram's Natural History.