Bible Dictionary


Sabachthani: thou hast forsaken me, one of the Aramaic words uttered by our Lord on the cross (Matt. 27:46; Mark 15:34).

Sabaoth: the transliteration of the Hebrew word _tsebha'oth_, meaning 'hosts,' 'armies' (Rom. 9:29; James 5:4). In the LXX. the Hebrew word is rendered by 'Almighty.' (See Rev. 4:8; comp. Isa. 6:3.) It may designate Jehovah as either (1) God of the armies of earth, or (2) God of the armies of the stars, or (3) God of the unseen armies of angels; or perhaps it may include all these ideas.

Sabbath: (Heb. verb shabbath, meaning 'to rest from labour'), the day of rest. It is first mentioned as having been instituted in Paradise, when man was in innocence (Gen. 2:2). 'The sabbath was made for man,' as a day of rest and refreshment for the body and of blessing to the soul.

Sabbath day's journey: supposed to be a distance of 2,000 cubits, or less than half-a-mile, the distance to which, according to Jewish tradition, it was allowable to travel on the Sabbath day without violating the law (Acts 1:12; comp. Ex. 16:29; Num. 35:5; Josh. 3:4).

Sabbatical year: every seventh year, during which the land, according to the law of Moses, had to remain uncultivated (Lev. 25:2-7; comp. Ex. 23:10, 11, 12; Lev. 26:34, 35). Whatever grew of itself during that year was not for the owner of the land, but for the poor and the stranger and the beasts of the field. All debts, except those of foreigners, were to be remitted (Deut. 15:1-11). There is little notice of the observance of this year in Biblical history. It appears to have been much neglected (2 Chr. 36:20, 21).

Sabeans: descendants of Seba (Gen. 10:7); Africans (Isa. 43:3). They were 'men of stature,' and engaged in merchandise (Isa. 45:14). Their conversion to the Lord was predicted (Ps. 72:10). This word, in Ezek. 23:42, should be read, as in the margin of the Authorized Version, and in the Revised Version, 'drunkards.' Another tribe, apparently given to war, is mentioned in Job 1:15.

Sabtah: rest, the third son of Cush (Gen. 10:7; 1 Chr. 1:9).

Sabtecha: the fifth son of Cush (id.).

Sachar: hire. (1.) One of David's heroes (1 Chr. 11:35); called also Sharar (2 Sam. 23:33).

Sackbut: (Chald. sabkha; Gr. sambuke), a Syrian stringed instrument resembling a harp (Dan. 3:5, 7, 10, 15); not the modern sackbut, which is a wind instrument.

Sackcloth: cloth made of black goats' hair, coarse, rough, and thick, used for sacks, and also worn by mourners (Gen. 37:34; 42:25; 2 Sam. 3:31; Esther 4:1, 2; Ps. 30:11, etc.), and as a sign of repentance (Matt. 11:21). It was put upon animals by the people of Nineveh (Jonah 3:8).

Sacrifice: The offering up of sacrifices is to be regarded as a divine institution. It did not originate with man. God himself appointed it as the mode in which acceptable worship was to be offered to him by guilty man. The language and the idea of sacrifice pervade the whole Bible.

Sadducees: The origin of this Jewish sect cannot definitely be traced. It was probably the outcome of the influence of Grecian customs and philosophy during the period of Greek domination. The first time they are met with is in connection with John the Baptist's ministry. They came out to him when on the banks of the Jordan, and he said to them, 'O generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to come?' (Matt. 3:7.) The next time they are spoken of they are represented as coming to our Lord tempting him. He calls them 'hypocrites' and 'a wicked and adulterous generation' (Matt. 16:1-4; 22:23). The only reference to them in the Gospels of Mark (12:18-27) and Luke (20:27-38) is their attempting to ridicule the doctrine of the resurrection, which they denied, as they also denied the existence of angels. They are never mentioned in John's Gospel.

Sadoc: just, mentioned in the genealogy of our Lord (Matt. 1:14).

Saffron: Heb. karkom, Arab. zafran (i.e., 'yellow'), mentioned only in Cant. 4:13, 14; the Crocus sativus. Many species of the crocus are found in Palestine. The pistils and stigmata, from the centre of its flowers, are pressed into 'saffron cakes,' common in the East. 'We found,' says Tristram, 'saffron a very useful condiment in travelling cookery, a very small pinch of it giving not only a rich yellow colour but an agreable flavour to a dish of rice or to an insipid stew.'

Saint: one separated from the world and consecrated to God; one holy by profession and by covenant; a believer in Christ (Ps. 16:3; Rom. 1:7; 8:27; Phil. 1:1; Heb. 6:10).

Sala: a shoot, a descendant of Arphaxed (Luke 3:35, 36); called also Shelah (1 Chr. 1:18, 24).

Salamis: a city on the south-east coast of Cyprus (Acts 13:5), where Saul and Barnabas, on their first missionary journey, preached the word in one of the Jewish synagogues, of which there seem to have been several in that place. It is now called Famagusta.

Salathiel: whom I asked of God, the son of Jeconiah (Matt. 1:12; 1 Chr. 3:17); also called the son of Neri (Luke 3:27). The probable explanation of the apparent discrepancy is that he was the son of Neri, the descendant of Nathan, and thus heir to the throne of David on the death of Jeconiah (comp. Jer. 22:30).

Salcah: wandering, a city of Bashan assigned to the half tribe of Manasseh (Deut. 3:10; Josh. 12:5; 13:11), identified with Salkhad, about 56 miles east of Jordan.

Salem: peace, commonly supposed to be another name of Jerusalem (Gen. 14:18; Ps. 76:2; Heb. 7:1, 2).

Salim: peaceful, a place near AEnon (q.v.), on the west of Jordan, where John baptized (John 3:23). It was probably the Shalem mentioned in Gen. 33:18, about 7 miles south of AEnon, at the head of the great Wady Far'ah, which formed the northern boundary of Judea in the Jordan valley.

Sallai: basket-maker. (1.) A Benjamite (Neh. 11:8).

Sallu: weighed. (1.) A priest (Neh. 12:7).

Salmon (1): garment, the son of Nashon (Ruth 4:20; Matt. 1:4, 5), possibly the same as Salma in 1 Chr. 2:51.

Salmon (2): shady; or Zalmon (q.v.), a hill covered with dark forests, south of Shechem, from which Abimelech and his men gathered wood to burn that city (Judg. 9:48). In Ps. 68:14 the change from war to peace is likened to snow on the dark mountain, as some interpret the expression. Others suppose the words here mean that the bones of the slain left unburied covered the land, so that it seemed to be white as if covered with snow. The reference, however, of the psalm is probably to Josh. 11 and 12. The scattering of the kings and their followers is fitly likened unto the snow-flakes rapidly falling on the dark Salmon. It is the modern Jebel Suleiman.

Salmone: a promontory on the east of Crete, under which Paul sailed on his voyage to Rome (Acts 27:7); the modern Cape Sidero.

Salome: perfect. (1.) The wife of Zebedee and mother of James and John (Mat. 27:56), and probably the sister of Mary, the mother of our Lord (John 19:25). She sought for her sons places of honour in Christ's kingdom (Matt. 20:20, 21; comp. 19:28). She witnessed the crucifixion (Mark 15:40), and was present with the other women at the sepulchre (Matt. 27:56).

Salt: used to season food (Job 6:6), and mixed with the fodder of cattle (Isa. 30:24, 'clean;' in marg. of R.V. 'salted'). All meat-offerings were seasoned with salt (Lev. 2:13). To eat salt with one is to partake of his hospitality, to derive subsistence from him; and hence he who did so was bound to look after his host's interests (Ezra 4:14, 'We have maintenance from the king's palace;' A.V. marg., 'We are salted with the salt of the palace;' R.V., 'We eat the salt of the palace').

Salt Sea: (Josh. 3:16). See DEAD SEA.

Salt, The city of: one of the cities of Judah (Josh. 15:62), probably in the Valley of Salt, at the southern end of the Dead Sea.

Salt, Valley of: a place where it is said David smote the Syrians (2 Sam. 8:13). This valley (the' Arabah) is between Judah and Edom on the south of the Dead Sea. Hence some interpreters would insert the words, 'and he smote Edom,' after the words, 'Syrians' in the above text. It is conjectured that while David was leading his army against the Ammonites and Syrians, the Edomites invaded the south of Judah, and that David sent Joab or Abishai against them, who drove them back and finally subdued Edom. (Comp. title to Ps. 60.)

Salutation: 'Eastern modes of salutation are not unfrequently so prolonged as to become wearisome and a positive waste of time. The profusely polite Arab asks so many questions after your health, your happiness, your welfare, your house, and other things, that a person ignorant of the habits of the country would imagine there must be some secret ailment or mysterious sorrow oppressing you, which you wished to conceal, so as to spare the feelings of a dear, sympathizing friend, but which he, in the depth of his anxiety, would desire to hear of. I have often listened to these prolonged salutations in the house, the street, and the highway, and not unfrequently I have experienced their tedious monotony, and I have bitterly lamented useless waste of time' (Porter, Through Samaria, etc.). The work on which the disciples were sent forth was one of urgency, which left no time for empty compliments and prolonged greetings (Luke 10:4).

Salvation: This word is used of the deliverance of the Israelites from the Egyptians (Ex. 14:13), and of deliverance generally from evil or danger. In the New Testament it is specially used with reference to the great deliverance from the guilt and the pollution of sin wrought out by Jesus Christ, 'the great salvation' (Heb. 2:3). (See REDEMPTION; REGENERATION.)

Samaria: a watch-mountain or a watch-tower. In the heart of the mountains of Israel, a few miles north-west of Shechem, stands the 'hill of Shomeron,' a solitary mountain, a great 'mamelon.' It is an oblong hill, with steep but not inaccessible sides, and a long flat top. Omri, the king of Israel, purchased this hill from Shemer its owner for two talents of silver, and built on its broad summit the city to which he gave the name of 'Shomeron', i.e., Samaria, as the new capital of his kingdom instead of Tirzah (1 Kings 16:24). As such it possessed many advantages. Here Omri resided during the last six years of his reign. As the result of an unsuccessful war with Syria, he appears to have been obliged to grant to the Syrians the right to 'make streets in Samaria', i.e., probably permission to the Syrian merchants to carry on their trade in the Israelite capital. This would imply the existence of a considerable Syrian population. 'It was the only great city of Palestine created by the sovereign. All the others had been already consecrated by patriarchal tradition or previous possession. But Samaria was the choice of Omri alone. He, indeed, gave to the city which he had built the name of its former owner, but its especial connection with himself as its founder is proved by the designation which it seems Samaria bears in Assyrian inscriptions, Beth-khumri ('the house or palace of Omri').', Stanley.

Samaritan Pentateuch: On the return from the Exile, the Jews refused the Samaritans participation with them in the worship at Jerusalem, and the latter separated from all fellowship with them, and built a temple for themselves on Mount Gerizim. This temple was razed to the ground more than one hundred years B.C. Then a system of worship was instituted similar to that of the temple at Jerusalem. It was founded on the Law, copies of which had been multiplied in Israel as well as in Judah. Thus the Pentateuch was preserved among the Samaritans, although they never called it by this name, but always 'the Law,' which they read as one book. The division into five books, as we now have it, however, was adopted by the Samaritans, as it was by the Jews, in all their priests' copies of 'the Law,' for the sake of convenience. This was the only portion of the Old Testament which was accepted by the Samaritans as of divine authority.

Samaritans: the name given to the new and mixed inhabitants whom Esarhaddon (B.C. 677), the king of Assyria, brought from Babylon and other places and settled in the cities of Samaria, instead of the original inhabitants whom Sargon (B.C. 721) had removed into captivity (2 Kings 17:24; comp. Ezra 4:2, 9, 10). These strangers (comp. Luke 17:18) amalgamated with the Jews still remaining in the land, and gradually abandoned their old idolatry and adopted partly the Jewish religion.

Samgar-nebo: be gracious, O Nebo! or a cup-bearer of Nebo, probably the title of Nergal-sharezer, one of the princes of Babylon (Jer. 39:3).

Samos: an island in the AEgean Sea, which Paul passed on his voyage from Assos to Miletus (Acts 20:15), on his third missionary journey. It is about 27 miles long and 20 broad, and lies about 42 miles south-west of Smyrna.

Samothracia: an island in the AEgean Sea, off the coast of Thracia, about 32 miles distant. This Thracian Samos was passed by Paul on his voyage from Troas to Neapolis (Acts 16:11) on his first missionary journey. It is about 8 miles long and 6 miles broad. Its modern name is Samothraki.

Samson: of the sun, the son of Manoah, born at Zorah. The narrative of his life is given in Judg. 13-16. He was a 'Nazarite unto God' from his birth, the first Nazarite mentioned in Scripture (Judg. 13:3-5; comp. Num. 6:1-21). The first recorded event of his life was his marriage with a Philistine woman of Timnath (Judg. 14:1-5). Such a marriage was not forbidden by the law of Moses, as the Philistines did not form one of the seven doomed Canaanite nations (Ex. 34:11-16; Deut. 7:1-4). It was, however, an ill-assorted and unblessed marriage. His wife was soon taken from him and given 'to his companion' (Judg. 14:20). For this Samson took revenge by burning the 'standing corn of the Philistines' (15:1-8), who, in their turn, in revenge 'burnt her and her father with fire.' Her death he terribly avenged (15:7-19). During the twenty years following this he judged Israel; but we have no record of his life. Probably these twenty years may have been simultaneous with the last twenty years of Eli's life. After this we have an account of his exploits at Gaza (16:1-3), and of his infatuation for Delilah, and her treachery (16:4-20), and then of his melancholy death (16:21-31). He perished in the last terrible destruction he brought upon his enemies. 'So the dead which he slew at his death were more [in social and political importance=the elite of the people] than they which he slew in his life.'

Samuel: heard of God. The peculiar circumstances connected with his birth are recorded in 1 Sam. 1:20. Hannah, one of the two wives of Elkanah, who came up to Shiloh to worship before the Lord, earnestly prayed to God that she might become the mother of a son. Her prayer was graciously granted; and after the child was weaned she brought him to Shiloh nd consecrated him to the Lord as a perpetual Nazarite (1:23-2:11). Here his bodily wants and training were attended to by the women who served in the tabernacle, while Eli cared for his religious culture. Thus, probably, twelve years of his life passed away. 'The child Samuel grew on, and was in favour both with the Lord, and also with men' (2:26; comp. Luke 2:52). It was a time of great and growing degeneracy in Israel (Judg. 21:19-21; 1 Sam. 2:12-17, 22). The Philistines, who of late had greatly increased in number and in power, were practically masters of the country, and kept the people in subjection (1 Sam. 10:5; 13:3).

Samuel, Books of: The LXX. translators regarded the books of Samuel and of Kings as forming one continuous history, which they divided into four books, which they called 'Books of the Kingdom.' The Vulgate version followed this division, but styled them 'Books of the Kings.' These books of Samuel they accordingly called the 'First' and 'Second' Books of Kings, and not, as in the modern Protestant versions, the 'First' and 'Second' Books of Samuel.

Sanballat: held some place of authority in Samaria when Nehemiah went up to Jerusalem to rebuild its ruined walls. He vainly attempted to hinder this work (Neh. 2:10, 19; 4:1-12; 6). His daughter became the wife of one of the sons of Joiada, a son of the high priest, much to the grief of Nehemiah (13:28).

Sanctification: involves more than a mere moral reformation of character, brought about by the power of the truth: it is the work of the Holy Spirit bringing the whole nature more and more under the influences of the new gracious principles implanted in the soul in regeneration. In other words, sanctification is the carrying on to perfection the work begun in regeneration, and it extends to the whole man (Rom. 6:13; 2 Cor. 4:6; Col. 3:10; 1 John 4:7; 1 Cor. 6:19). It is the special office of the Holy Spirit in the plan of redemption to carry on this work (1 Cor. 6:11; 2 Thess. 2:13). Faith is instrumental in securing sanctification, inasmuch as it (1) secures union to Christ (Gal. 2:20), and (2) brings the believer into living contact with the truth, whereby he is led to yield obedience 'to the commands, trembling at the threatenings, and embracing the promises of God for this life and that which is to come.'

Sanctuary: denotes, (1) the Holy Land (Ex. 15:17; comp. Ps. 114:2); (2) the temple (1 Chr. 22:19; 2 Chr. 29:21); (3) the tabernacle (Ex. 25:8; Lev. 12:4; 21:12); (4) the holy place, the place of the Presence (Gr. hieron, the temple-house; not the _naos_, which is the temple area, with its courts and porches), Lev. 4:6; Eph. 2:21, R.V., marg.; (5) God's holy habitation in heaven (Ps. 102:19). In the final state there is properly 'no sanctuary' (Rev. 21:22), for God and the Lamb 'are the sanctuary' (R.V., 'temple'). All is there hallowed by the Divine Presence; all is sancturary.

Sandals: Mentioned only in Mark 6:9 and Acts 12:8. The sandal was simply a sole, made of wood or palm-bark, fastened to the foot by leathern straps. Sandals were also made of seal-skin (Ezek. 16:10; lit. tahash, 'leather;' A.V., 'badger's skin;' R.V., 'sealskin,' or marg., 'porpoise-skin'). (See SHOE.)

Sanhedrim: more correctly Sanhedrin (Gr. synedrion), meaning 'a sitting together,' or a 'council.' This word (rendered 'council,' A.V.) is frequently used in the New Testament (Matt. 5:22; 26:59; Mark 15:1, etc.) to denote the supreme judicial and administrative council of the Jews, which, it is said, was first instituted by Moses, and was composed of seventy men (Num. 11:16, 17). But that seems to have been only a temporary arrangement which Moses made. This council is with greater probability supposed to have originated among the Jews when they were under the domination of the Syrian kings in the time of the Maccabees. The name is first employed by the Jewish historian Josephus. This 'council' is referred to simply as the 'chief priests and elders of the people' (Matt. 26:3, 47, 57, 59; 27:1, 3, 12, 20, etc.), before whom Christ was tried on the charge of claiming to be the Messiah. Peter and John were also brought before it for promulgating heresy (Acts. 4:1-23; 5:17-41); as was also Stephen on a charge of blasphemy (6:12-15), and Paul for violating a temple by-law (22:30; 23:1-10).

Sansannah: a palm branch, or a thorn bush, a town in the south (the negeb) of Judah (Josh. 15:31); called also Hazarsusah (19:5), or Hazar-susim (1 Chr. 4:31).

Saph: extension, the son of the giant whom Sibbechai slew (2 Sam. 21:18); called also Sippai (1 Chr. 20:4).

Saphir: beautiful, a town of Judah (Micah 1:11), identified with es-Suafir, 5 miles south-east of Ashdod.

Sapphira: beautiful, the wife of Ananias (q.v.). She was a partner in his guilt and also in his punishment (Acts 5:1-11).

Sapphire: Associated with diamonds (Ex. 28:18) and emeralds (Ezek. 28:13); one of the stones in the high priest's breastplate. It is a precious stone of a sky-blue colour, probably the lapis lazuli, brought from Babylon. The throne of God is described as of the colour of a sapphire (Ex. 24:10; comp. Ezek. 1:26).

Sarah: princess, the wife and at the same time the half-sister of Abraham (Gen. 11:29; 20:12). This name was given to her at the time that it was announced to Abraham that she should be the mother of the promised child. Her story is from her marriage identified with that of the patriarch till the time of her death. Her death, at the age of one hundred and twenty-seven years (the only instance in Scripture where the age of a woman is recorded), was the occasion of Abraham's purchasing the cave of Machpelah as a family burying-place.

Sarai: my princess, the name originally borne by Sarah (Gen. 11:31; 17:15).

Sardine stone: (Rev. 4:3, R.V., 'sardius;' Heb. 'odhem; LXX., Gr. sardion, from a root meaning 'red'), a gem of a blood-red colour. It was called 'sardius' because obtained from Sardis in Lydia. It is enumerated among the precious stones in the high priest's breastplate (Ex. 28:17; 39:10). It is our red carnelian.

Sardis: the metropolis of Lydia in Asia Minor. It stood on the river Pactolus, at the foot of mount Tmolus. Here was one of the seven Asiatic churches (Rev. 3:1-6). It is now a ruin called Sert-Kalessi.

Sardonyx: (Rev. 21:20), a species of the carnelian combining the sard and the onyx, having three layers of opaque spots or stripes on a transparent red basis. Like the sardine, it is a variety of the chalcedony.

Sarepta: (Luke 4:26). See ZAREPHATH.

Sargon: (In the inscriptions, 'Sarra-yukin' [the god] has appointed the king; also 'Sarru-kinu,' the legitimate king.) On the death of Shalmaneser (B.C. 723), one of the Assyrian generals established himself on the vacant throne, taking the name of 'Sargon,' after that of the famous monarch, the Sargon of Accad, founder of the first Semitic empire, as well as of one of the most famous libraries of Chaldea. He forthwith began a conquering career, and became one of the most powerful of the Assyrian monarchs. He is mentioned by name in the Bible only in connection with the siege of Ashdod (Isa. 20:1).

Satan: adversary; accuser. When used as a proper name, the Hebrew word so rendered has the article 'the adversary' (Job 1:6-12; 2:1-7). In the New Testament it is used as interchangeable with Diabolos, or the devil, and is so used more than thirty times.

Satyr: hairy one. Mentioned in Greek mythology as a creature composed of a man and a goat, supposed to inhabit wild and desolate regions. The Hebrew word is rendered also 'goat' (Lev. 4:24) and 'devil', i.e., an idol in the form of a goat (17:7; 2 Chr. 11:15). When it is said (Isa. 13:21; comp. 34:14) 'the satyrs shall dance there,' the meaning is that the place referred to shall become a desolate waste. Some render the Hebrew word 'baboon,' a species of which is found in Babylonia.

Saul: asked for. (1.) A king of Edom (Gen. 36:37, 38); called Shaul in 1 Chr. 1:48.

Saviour: one who saves from any form or degree of evil. In its highest sense the word indicates the relation sustained by our Lord to his redeemed ones, he is their Saviour. The great message of the gospel is about salvation and the Saviour. It is the 'gospel of salvation.' Faith in the Lord Jesus Christ secures to the sinner a personal interest in the work of redemption. Salvation is redemption made effectual to the individual by the power of the Holy Spirit.

Scapegoat: Lev. 16:8-26; R.V., 'the goat for Azazel' (q.v.), the name given to the goat which was taken away into the wilderness on the day of Atonement (16:20-22). The priest made atonement over the scapegoat, laying Israel's guilt upon it, and then sent it away, the goat bearing 'upon him all their iniquities unto a land not inhabited.'

Scarlet: This dye was obtained by the Egyptians from the shell-fish Carthamus tinctorius; and by the Hebrews from the Coccus ilicis, an insect which infests oak trees, called kermes by the Arabians.

Sceptre: (Heb. shebet = Gr. skeptron), properly a staff or rod. As a symbol of authority, the use of the sceptre originated in the idea that the ruler was as a shepherd of his people (Gen. 49:10; Num. 24:17; Ps. 45:6; Isa. 14:5). There is no example on record of a sceptre having ever been actually handled by a Jewish king.

Sceva: an implement, a Jew, chief of the priests at Ephesus (Acts 19:13-16); i.e., the head of one of the twenty-four courses of the house of Levi. He had seven sons, who 'took upon them to call over them which had evil spirits the name of the Lord Jesus,' in imitation of Paul. They tried their method of exorcism on a fierce demoniac, and failed. His answer to them was to this effect (19:15): 'The Jesus whom you invoke is One whose authority I acknowledge; and the Paul whom you name I recognize to be a servant or messenger of God; but what sort of men are ye who have been empowered to act as you do by neither?' (Lindsay on the Acts of the Apostles.)

Schism: a separation, an alienation causing divisions among Christians, who ought to be united (1 Cor. 12:25).

Schoolmaster: the law so designated by Paul (Gal. 3:24, 25). As so used, the word does not mean teacher, but pedagogue (shortened into the modern page), i.e., one who was intrusted with the supervision of a family, taking them to and from the school, being responsible for their safety and manners. Hence the pedagogue was stern and severe in his discipline. Thus the law was a pedagogue to the Jews, with a view to Christ, i.e., to prepare for faith in Christ by producing convictions of guilt and helplessness. The office of the pedagogue ceased when 'faith came', i.e., the object of that faith, the seed, which is Christ.

Schools of the Prophets: (1 Sam. 19:18-24; 2 Kings 2:3, 5, 7, 12, 15) were instituted for the purpose of training young men for the prophetical and priestly offices. (See PROPHET; SAMUEL.)

Scorpions: mentioned along with serpents (Deut. 8:15). Used also figuratively to denote wicked persons (Ezek. 2:6; Luke 10:19); also a particular kind of scourge or whip (1 Kings 12:11). Scorpions were a species of spider. They abounded in the Jordan valley.

Scourging: (1 Kings 12:11). Variously administered. In no case were the stripes to exceed forty (Deut. 25:3; comp. 2 Cor. 11:24). In the time of the apostles, in consequence of the passing of what was called the Porcian law, no Roman citizen could be scourged in any case (Acts 16:22-37). (See BASTINADO.) In the scourging of our Lord (Matt. 27:26; Mark 15:15) the words of prophecy (Isa. 53:5) were fulfilled.

Scribes: anciently held various important offices in the public affairs of the nation. The Hebrew word so rendered (sopher) is first used to designate the holder of some military office (Judg. 5:14; A.V., 'pen of the writer;' R.V., 'the marshal's staff;' marg., 'the staff of the scribe'). The scribes acted as secretaries of state, whose business it was to prepare and issue decrees in the name of the king (2 Sam. 8:17; 20:25; 1 Chr. 18:16; 24:6; 1 Kings 4:3; 2 Kings 12:9-11; 18:18-37, etc.). They discharged various other important public duties as men of high authority and influence in the affairs of state.

Scrip: a small bag or wallet usually fastened to the girdle (1 Sam. 17:40); 'a shepherd's bag.'

Scripture: invariably in the New Testament denotes that definite collection of sacred books, regarded as given by inspiration of God, which we usually call the Old Testament (2 Tim. 3:15, 16; John 20:9; Gal. 3:22; 2 Pet. 1:20). It was God's purpose thus to perpetuate his revealed will. From time to time he raised up men to commit to writing in an infallible record the revelation he gave. The 'Scripture,' or collection of sacred writings, was thus enlarged from time to time as God saw necessary. We have now a completed 'Scripture,' consisting of the Old and New Testaments. The Old Testament canon in the time of our Lord was precisely the same as that which we now possess under that name. He placed the seal of his own authority on this collection of writings, as all equally given by inspiration (Matt. 5:17; 7:12; 22:40; Luke 16:29, 31). (See BIBLE; CANON.)

Scythian: The Scythians consisted of 'all the pastoral tribes who dwelt to the north of the Black Sea and the Caspian, and were scattered far away toward the east. Of this vast country but little was anciently known. Its modern representative is Russia, which, to a great extent, includes the same territories.' They were the descendants of Japheth (Gen. 9:27). It appears that in apostolic times there were some of this people that embraced Christianity (Col. 3:11).

Sea of glass: a figurative expression used in Rev. 4:6 and 15:2. According to the interpretation of some, 'this calm, glass-like sea, which is never in storm, but only interfused with flame, represents the counsels of God, those purposes of righteousness and love which are often fathomless but never obscure, always the same, though sometimes glowing with holy anger.' (Comp. Ps. 36:6; 77:19; Rom. 11:33-36.)

Sea of Jazer: (Jer. 48:32), a lake, now represented by some ponds in the high valley in which the Ammonite city of Jazer lies, the ruins of which are called Sar.

Sea, The: (Heb. yam), signifies (1) 'the gathering together of the waters,' the ocean (Gen. 1:10); (2) a river, as the Nile (Isa. 19:5), the Euphrates (Isa. 21:1; Jer. 51:36); (3) the Red Sea (Ex. 14:16, 27; 15:4, etc.); (4) the Mediterranean (Ex. 23:31; Num. 34:6, 7; Josh. 15:47; Ps. 80:11, etc.); (5) the 'sea of Galilee,' an inland fresh-water lake, and (6) the Dead Sea or 'salt sea' (Gen. 14:3; Num. 34:3, 12, etc.). The word 'sea' is used symbolically in Isa. 60:5, where it probably means the nations around the Mediterranean. In Dan. 7:3, Rev. 13:1 it may mean the tumultuous changes among the nations of the earth.

Sea, The molten: the great laver made by Solomon for the use of the priests in the temple, described in 1 Kings 7:23-26; 2 Chr. 4:2-5. It stood in the south-eastern corner of the inner court. It was 5 cubits high, 10 in diameter from brim to brim, and 30 in circumference. It was placed on the backs of twelve oxen, standing with their faces outward. It was capable of containing two or three thousand baths of water (comp. 2 Chr. 4:5), which was originally supplied by the Gibeonites, but was afterwards brought by a conduit from the pools of Bethlehem. It was made of 'brass' (copper), which Solomon had taken from the captured cities of Hadarezer, the king of Zobah (1 Chr. 18:8). Ahaz afterwards removed this laver from the oxen, and placed it on a stone pavement (2 Kings 16:17). It was destroyed by the Chaldeans (25:13).

Seah: In land measure, a space of 50 cubits long by 50 broad. In measure of capacity, a seah was a little over one peck. (See MEASURE.)

Seal: commonly a ring engraved with some device (Gen. 38:18, 25). Jezebel 'wrote letters in Ahab's name, and sealed them with his seal' (1 Kings 21:8). Seals are frequently mentioned in Jewish history (Deut. 32:34; Neh. 9:38; 10:1; Esther 3:12; Cant. 8:6; Isa. 8:16; Jer. 22:24; 32:44, etc.). Sealing a document was equivalent to the signature of the owner of the seal. 'The use of a signet-ring by the monarch has recently received a remarkable illustration by the discovery of an impression of such a signet on fine clay at Koyunjik, the site of the ancient Nineveh. This seal appears to have been impressed from the bezel of a metallic finger-ring. It is an oval, 2 inches in length by 1 inch wide, and bears the image, name, and titles of the Egyptian king Sabaco' (Rawlinson's Hist. Illus. of the O.T., p. 46). The actual signet-rings of two Egyptian kings (Cheops and Horus) have been discovered. (See SIGNET.)

Seasons: (Gen. 8:22). See AGRICULTURE; MONTH.

Seba: (1.) One of the sons of Cush (Gen. 10:7).

Sebat: the eleventh month of the Hebrew year, extending from the new moon of February to that of March (Zech. 1:7). Assyrian sabatu, 'storm.' (See MONTH.)

Secacah: enclosure, one of the six cities in the wilderness of Judah, noted for its 'great cistern' (Josh. 15:61). It has been identified with the ruin Sikkeh, east of Bethany.

Sechu: a hill or watch-tower, a place between Gibeah and Ramah noted for its 'great well' (1 Sam. 19:22); probably the modern Suweikeh, south of Beeroth.

Sect: (Gr. hairesis, usually rendered 'heresy', Acts 24:14; 1 Chr. 11:19; Gal. 5:20, etc.), meaning properly 'a choice,' then 'a chosen manner of life,' and then 'a religious party,' as the 'sect' of the Sadducees (Acts 5:17), of the Pharisees (15:5), the Nazarenes, i.e., Christians (24:5). It afterwards came to be used in a bad sense, of those holding pernicious error, divergent forms of belief (2 Pet. 2:1; Gal. 5:20).

Secundus: second, a Christian of Thessalonica who accompanied Paul into Asia (Acts 20:4).

Seer: a name sometimes applied to the prophets because of the visions granted to them. It is first found in 1 Sam. 9:9. It is afterwards applied to Zadok, Gad, etc. (2 Sam. 15:27; 24:11; 1 Chr. 9:22; 25:5; 2 Chr. 9:29; Amos 7:12; Micah 3:7). The 'sayings of the seers' (2 Chr. 33:18, 19) is rendered in the Revised Version 'the history of Hozai' (marg., the seers; so the LXX.), of whom, however, nothing is known. (See PROPHET

Seethe: to boil (Ex. 16:23).

Seething pot: a vessel for boiling provisions in (Job 41:20; Jer. 1:13).

Segub: elevated. (1.) The youngest son of Hiel the Bethelite. His death is recorded in 1 Kings 16:34 (comp. Josh. 6:26).

Seir: rough; hairy. (1.) A Horite; one of the 'dukes' of Edom (Gen. 36:20-30).

Seirath: woody district; shaggy, a place among the mountains of Ephraim, bordering on Benjamin, to which Ehud fled after he had assassinated Eglon at Jericho (Judg. 3:26, 27).

Sela: =Se'lah, rock, the capital of Edom, situated in the great valley extending from the Dead Sea to the Red Sea (2 Kings 14:7). It was near Mount Hor, close by the desert of Zin. It is called 'the rock' (Judg. 1:36). When Amaziah took it he called it Joktheel (q.v.) It is mentioned by the prophets (Isa. 16:1; Obad. 1:3) as doomed to destruction.

Sela-hammahlekoth: cliff of divisions the name of the great gorge which lies between Hachilah and Maon, south-east of Hebron. This gorge is now called the Wady Malaky. This was the scene of the interview between David and Saul mentioned in 1 Sam.26:13. Each stood on an opposing cliff, with this deep chasm between.

Selah: a word frequently found in the Book of Psalms, and also in Hab. 3:9, 13, about seventy-four times in all in Scripture. Its meaning is doubtful. Some interpret it as meaning 'silence' or 'pause;' others, 'end,' 'a louder strain,' 'piano,' etc. The LXX. render the word by daplasma i.e., 'a division.'

Seleucia: the sea-port of Antioch, near the mouth of the Orontes. Paul and his companions sailed from this port on their first missionary journey (Acts 13:4). This city was built by Seleucus Nicator, the 'king of Syria.' It is said of him that 'few princes have ever lived with so great a passion for the building of cities. He is reputed to have built in all nine Seleucias, sixteen Antiochs, and six Laodiceas.' Seleucia became a city of great importance, and was made a 'free city' by Pompey. It is now a small village, called el-Kalusi.

Semei: mentioned in the genealogy of our Lord (Luke 3:26).

Senaah: thorny, a place many of the inhabitants of which returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:35; Neh. 7:38).

Senate: (Acts 5:21), the 'elders of Israel' who formed a component part of the Sanhedrin.

Seneh: the acacia; rock-thorn, the southern cliff in the Wady es-Suweinit, a valley south of Michmash, which Jonathan climbed with his armour-bearer (1 Sam. 14:4, 5). The rock opposite, on the other side of the wady, was called Bozez.

Senir: =Shenir, the name given to Hermon by the Amorites (Deut. 3:9). It means 'coat of mail' or 'breastplate,' and is equivalent to 'Sirion.' Some interpret the word as meaning 'the prominent' or 'the snowy mountain.' It is properly the name of the central of the three summits of Hermon (q.v.).

Sennacherib: Sin (the god) sends many brothers, son of Sargon, whom he succeeded on the throne of Assyria (B.C. 705), in the 23rd year of Hezekiah. 'Like the Persian Xerxes, he was weak and vainglorious, cowardly under reverse, and cruel and boastful in success.' He first set himself to break up the powerful combination of princes who were in league against him. Among these was Hezekiah, who had entered into an alliance with Egypt against Assyria. He accordingly led a very powerful army of at least 200,000 men into Judea, and devastated the land on every side, taking and destroying many cities (2 Kings 18:13-16; comp. Isa. 22, 24, 29, and 2 Chr. 32:1-8). His own account of this invasion, as given in the Assyrian annals, is in these words: 'Because Hezekiah, king of Judah, would not submit to my yoke, I came up against him, and by force of arms and by the might of my power I took forty-six of his strong fenced cities; and of the smaller towns which were scattered about, I took and plundered a countless number. From these places I took and carried off 200,156 persons, old and young, male and female, together with horses and mules, asses and camels, oxen and sheep, a countless multitude; and Hezekiah himself I shut up in Jerusalem, his capital city, like a bird in a cage, building towers round the city to hem him in, and raising banks of earth against the gates, so as to prevent escape...Then upon Hezekiah there fell the fear of the power of my arms, and he sent out to me the chiefs and the elders of Jerusalem with 30 talents of gold and 800 talents of silver, and divers treasures, a rich and immense booty...All these things were brought to me at Nineveh, the seat of my government.' (Comp. Isa. 22:1-13 for description of the feelings of the inhabitants of Jerusalem at such a crisis.)

Seorim: barley, the chief of the forth priestly course (1 Chr. 24:8).

Sephar: numbering, (Gen. 10:30), supposed by some to be the ancient Himyaritic capital, 'Shaphar,' Zaphar, on the Indian Ocean, between the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea.

Sepharad: (Obad. 1:20), some locality unknown. The modern Jews think that Spain is meant, and hence they designate the Spanish Jews 'Sephardim,' as they do the German Jews by the name 'Ashkenazim,' because the rabbis call Germany Ashkenaz. Others identify it with Sardis, the capital of Lydia. The Latin father Jerome regarded it as an Assyrian word, meaning 'boundary,' and interpreted the sentence, 'which is in Sepharad,' by 'who are scattered abroad in all the boundaries and regions of the earth.' Perowne says: 'Whatever uncertainty attaches to the word Sepharad, the drift of the prophecy is clear, viz., that not only the exiles from Babylon, but Jewish captives from other and distant regions, shall be brought back to live prosperously within the enlarged borders of their own land.'

Sepharvaim: taken by Sargon, king of Assyria (2 Kings 17:24; 18:34; 19:13; Isa. 37:13). It was a double city, and received the common name Sepharvaim, i.e., 'the two Sipparas,' or 'the two booktowns.' The Sippara on the east bank of the Euphrates is now called Abu-Habba; that on the other bank was Accad, the old capital of Sargon I., where he established a great library. (See SARGON

Septuagint: See VERSIONS.

Sepulchre: first mentioned as purchased by Abraham for Sarah from Ephron the Hittite (Gen. 23:20). This was the 'cave of the field of Machpelah,' where also Abraham and Rebekah and Jacob and Leah were burried (79:29-32). In Acts 7:16 it is said that Jacob was 'laid in the sepulchre that Abraham bought for a sum of money of the sons of Emmor the father of Sychem.' It has been proposed, as a mode of reconciling the apparent discrepancy between this verse and Gen. 23:20, to read Acts 7:16 thus: 'And they [i.e., our fathers] were carried over into Sychem, and laid in the sepulchre that Abraham bought for a sum of money of the sons of Emmor [the son] of Sychem.' In this way the purchase made by Abraham is not to be confounded with the purchase made by Jacob subsequently in the same district. Of this purchase by Abraham there is no direct record in the Old Testament. (See TOMB

Serah: abundance; princess, the daughter of Asher and grand-daughter of Jacob (Gen. 46:17); called also Sarah (Num. 26:46; R.V., 'Serah').

Seraiah: soldier of Jehovah. (1.) The father of Joab (1 Chr. 4:13, 14).

Seraphim: mentioned in Isa. 6:2, 3, 6, 7. This word means fiery ones, in allusion, as is supposed, to their burning love. They are represented as 'standing' above the King as he sat upon his throne, ready at once to minister unto him. Their form appears to have been human, with the addition of wings. (See ANGELS

Sered: fear, one of the sons of Zebulun (Gen. 46:14).

Sergeants: Acts 16:35, 38 (R.V., 'lictors'), officers who attended the magistrates and assisted them in the execution of justice.

Sergius Paulus: a 'prudent man' (R.V., 'man of understanding'), the deputy (R.V., 'proconsul') of Cyprus (Acts 13:6-13). He became a convert to Christianity under Paul, who visited this island on his first mission to the heathen.

Sermon on the mount: After spending a night in solemn meditation and prayer in the lonely mountain-range to the west of the Lake of Galilee (Luke 6:12), on the following morning our Lord called to him his disciples, and from among them chose twelve, who were to be henceforth trained to be his apostles (Mark 3:14, 15). After this solemn consecration of the twelve, he descended from the mountain-peak to a more level spot (Luke 6:17), and there he sat down and delivered the 'sermon on the mount' (Matt. 5-7; Luke 6:20-49) to the assembled multitude. The mountain here spoken of was probably that known by the name of the 'Horns of Hattin' (Kurun Hattin), a ridge running east and west, not far from Capernaum. It was afterwards called the 'Mount of Beatitudes.'

Serpent: (Heb. nahash; Gr. ophis), frequently noticed in Scripture. More than forty species are found in Syria and Arabia. The poisonous character of the serpent is alluded to in Jacob's blessing on Dan (Gen. 49:17; see Prov. 30:18, 19; James 3:7; Jer. 8:17). (See ADDER.)

Serpent, Fiery: (LXX. 'deadly,' Vulg. 'burning'), Num. 21:6, probably the naja haje of Egypt; some swift-springing, deadly snake (Isa. 14:29). After setting out from their encampment at Ezion-gaber, the Israelites entered on a wide sandy desert, which stretches from the mountains of Edom as far as the Persian Gulf. While traversing this region, the people began to murmur and utter loud complaints against Moses. As a punishment, the Lord sent serpents among them, and much people of Israel died. Moses interceded on their behalf, and by divine direction he made a 'brazen serpent,' and raised it on a pole in the midst of the camp, and all the wounded Israelites who looked on it were at once healed. (Comp. John 3:14, 15.) (See ASP.) This 'brazen serpent' was preserved by the Israelites till the days of Hezekiah, when it was destroyed (2 Kings 18:4). (See BRASS

Serug: branch, the father of Nahor (Gen. 11:20-23); called Saruch in Luke 3:35.

Servitor: occurs only in 2 Kings 4:43, Authorized Version (R.V., 'servant'). The Hebrew word there rendered 'servitor' is elsewhere rendered 'minister,' 'servant' (Ex. 24:13; 33:11). Probably Gehazi, the personal attendant on Elisha, is here meant.

Seth: appointed; a substitute, the third son of Adam and Eve (Gen. 4:25; 5:3). His mother gave him this name, 'for God,' said she, 'hath appointed me [i.e., compensated me with] another seed instead of Abel, whom Cain slew.'

Sethur: hidden, one of the spies sent to search the Promised Land. He was of the tribe of Asher (Num. 13:13).

Seven: This number occurs frequently in Scripture, and in such connections as lead to the supposition that it has some typical meaning. On the seventh day God rested, and hallowed it (Gen. 2:2, 3). The division of time into weeks of seven days each accounts for many instances of the occurrence of this number. This number has been called the symbol of perfection, and also the symbol of rest. 'Jacob's seven years' service to Laban; Pharaoh's seven fat oxen and seven lean ones; the seven branches of the golden candlestick; the seven trumpets and the seven priests who sounded them; the seven days' siege of Jericho; the seven churches, seven spirits, seven stars, seven seals, seven vials, and many others, sufficiently prove the importance of this sacred number' (see Lev. 25:4; 1 Sam. 2:5; Ps. 12:6; 79:12; Prov. 26:16; Isa. 4:1; Matt. 18:21, 22; Luke 17:4). The feast of Passover (Ex. 12:15, 16), the feast of Weeks (Deut. 16:9), of Tabernacles (13:15), and the Jubilee (Lev. 25:8), were all ordered by seven. Seven is the number of sacrifice (2 Chr. 29:21; Job 42:8), of purification and consecration (Lev. 42:6, 17; 8:11, 33; 14:9, 51), of forgiveness (Matt. 18:21, 22; Luke 17:4), of reward (Deut. 28:7; 1 Sam. 2:5), and of punishment (Lev. 26:21, 24, 28; Deut. 28:25). It is used for any round number in such passages as Job 5:19; Prov. 26:16, 25; Isa. 4:1; Matt. 12:45. It is used also to mean 'abundantly' (Gen. 4:15, 24; Lev. 26:24; Ps. 79:12).

Seventy weeks: a prophetic period mentioned in Dan. 9:24, and usually interpreted on the 'year-day' theory, i.e., reckoning each day for a year. This period will thus represent 490 years. This is regarded as the period which would elapse till the time of the coming of the Messiah, dating 'from the going forth of the commandment to restore and rebuild Jerusalem' i.e., from the close of the Captivity.

Shaalabbin: or Shaal'bim, a place of foxes, a town of the tribe of Dan (Josh. 19:42; Judg. 1:35). It was one of the chief towns from which Solomon drew his supplies (1 Kings 4:9). It is probably the modern village of Selbit, 3 miles north of Ajalon.

Shaaraim: two gates. (1.) A city in the plain of Judah (1 Sam. 17:52); called also Sharaim (Josh. 15:36).

Shaashgaz: servant of the beautiful, a chief eunuch in the second house of the harem of king Ahasuerus (Esther 2:14).

Shabbethai: Sabbath-born, a Levite who assisted in expounding the law and investigating into the illegal marriages of the Jews (Ezra 10:15; Neh. 8:7; 11:16).

Shaddai: the Omnipotent, the name of God in frequent use in the Hebrew Scriptures, generally translated 'the Almighty.'

Shadow: used in Col. 2:17; Heb. 8:5; 10:1 to denote the typical relation of the Jewish to the Christian dispensation.

Shadrach: Aku's command, the Chaldean name given to Hananiah, one of the Hebrew youths whom Nebuchadnezzar carried captive to Babylon (Dan. 1:6, 7; 3:12-30). He and his two companions refused to bow down before the image which Nebuchadnezzar had set up on the plains of Dura. Their conduct filled the king with the greatest fury, and he commanded them to be cast into the burning fiery furnace. Here, amid the fiery flames, they were miraculously preserved from harm. Over them the fire had no power, 'neither was a hair of their head singed, neither had the smell of fire passed on them.' Thus Nebuchadnezzar learned the greatness of the God of Israel. (See ABEDNEGO.)

Shalem: perfect, a place (probably the village of Salim) some 2 miles east of Jacob's well. There is an abundant supply of water, which may have been the reason for Jacob's settling at this place (Gen. 33:18-20). The Revised Version translates this word, and reads, 'Jacob came in peace to the city of Shechem,' thus not regarding it as a proper name at all.

Shalim, Land of: land of foxes, a place apparently to the north-west of Jerusalem (1 Sam. 9:4), perhaps in the neighbourhood of Shaalabbin in Dan (Josh. 19:42).

Shalisha, Land of: probably the district of Baal-shalisha (2 Kings 4:42), lying about 12 miles north of Lydda (1 Sam. 9:4).

Shallecheth, The gate of: i.e., 'the gate of casting out,' hence supposed to be the refuse gate; one of the gates of the house of the Lord, 'by the causeway of the going up' i.e., the causeway rising up from the Tyropoeon valley = valley of the cheesemakers (1 Chr. 26:16).

Shallum: retribution. (1.) The son of Jabesh, otherwise unknown. He 'conspired against Zachariah, and smote him before the people, and slew him, and reigned in his stead' (2 Kings 15:10). He reigned only 'a month of days in Samaria' (15:13, marg.). Menahem rose up against Shallum and put him to death (2 Kings 15:14, 15, 17), and became king in his stead.

Shalman: an Assyrian king (Hos. 10:14), identified with Shalmaneser II. (Sayce) or IV. (Lenormant), the successor of Pul on the throne of Assyria (B.C. 728). He made war against Hoshea, the king of Israel, whom he subdued and compelled to pay an annual tribute. Hoshea, however, soon after rebelled against his Assyrian conquerer. Shalmaneser again marched against Samaria, which, after a siege of three years, was taken (2 Kings 17:3-5; 18:9) by Sargon (q.v.). A revolution meantime had broken out in Assyria, and Shalmaneser was deposed. Sargon usurped the vacant throne. Schrader thinks that this is probably the name of a king of Moab mentioned on an inscription of Tiglath-pileser as Salamanu.

Shamgar: The Philistines from the maritime plain had made incursions into the Hebrew upland for the purposes of plunder, when one of this name, the son of Anath, otherwise unknown, headed a rising for the purpose of freeing the land from this oppression. He repelled the invasion, slaying 600 men with an 'ox goad' (q.v.). The goad was a formidable sharpointed instrument, sometimes ten feet long. He was probably contemporary for a time with Deborah and Barak (Judg. 3:31; 5:6).

Shamir: a sharp thorn. (1.) One of the sons of Michah (1 Chr. 24:24).

Shammah: desert. (1.) One of the 'dukes' of Edom (Gen. 36:13, 17).

Shammua: heard. (1.) One of the spies sent out by Moses to search the land (Num. 13:4). He represented the tribe of Reuben.

Shaphan: a coney, a scribe or secretary of king Josiah (2 Kings 22:3-7). He consulted Huldah concerning the newly-discovered copy of the law which was delivered to him by Hilkiah the priest (8-14). His grandson Gedaliah was governor of Judea (25:22).

Shaphat: judge. (1.) One of the spies. He represented the tribe of Simeon (Num. 13:5).

Shapher: brightness, one of the stations where Israel encamped in the wilderness (Num. 33:23, 24).

Sharaim: two gates (Josh. 15:36), more correctly Shaaraim (1 Sam. 17:52), probably Tell Zakariya and Kefr Zakariya, in the valley of Elah, 3 1/2 miles north-west of Socoh.

Sharezer: (god) protect the king!, a son of Sennacherib, king of Assyria. He and his brother Adrammelech murdered their father, and then fled into the land of Armenia (2 Kings 19:37).

Sharon, Saron: a plain, a level tract extending from the Mediterranean to the hill country to the west of Jerusalem, about 30 miles long and from 8 to 15 miles broad, celebrated for its beauty and fertility (1 Chr. 27:29; Isa. 33:9; 35:2; 65:10). The 'rose of Sharon' is celebrated (Cant. 2:1). It is called Lasharon (the article la being here a part of the word) in Josh. 12:18.

Shaveh, Valley of: valley of the plain the ancient name of the 'king's dale' (q.v.), or Kidron, on the north side of Jerusalem (Gen. 14:17).

Shaveh-Kiriathaim: plain of Kirja-thaim where Chedorlaomer defeated the Emims, the original inhabitants (Gen. 14:5). Now Kureiyat, north of Dibon, in the land of Moab.

Shavsha: ('Seraiah,' 2 Sam. 8:17; 'Shisha,' 1 Kings 4:3), one of David's secretaries (1 Chr. 18:16).

Shealtiel: asked for of God, father of Zerubbabel (Ezra 3:2, 8; Neh. 12:1).

Shear-Jashub: a remnant shall escape or return (i.e., to God), a symbolical name which the prophet Isaiah gave to his son (Isa. 7:3), perhaps his eldest son.

Shearing-house: (2 Kings 10:12, 14; marg., 'house of shepherds binding sheep.' R.V., 'the shearing-house of the shepherds;' marg., 'house of gathering'), some place between Samaria and Jezreel, where Jehu slew 'two and forty men' of the royal family of Judah. The Heb. word Beth-eked so rendered is supposed by some to be a proper name.

Sheba: an oath, seven. (1.) Heb. shebha, the son of Raamah (Gen. 10:7), whose descendants settled with those of Dedan on the Persian Gulf.

Shebaniah: whom Jehovah hides, or has made grow up. (1.) A Levite appointed to blow the trumpet before the ark of God (1 Chr. 15:24).

Shebarim: breaks; ruins, a place near Ai (Josh. 7:5; R.V. marg., 'the quarries').

Shebna: tender youth, 'treasurer' over the house in the reign of Hezekiah, i.e., comptroller or governor of the palace. On account of his pride he was ejected from his office, and Eliakim was promoted to it (Isa. 22:15-25). He appears to have been the leader of the party who favoured an alliance with Egypt against Assyria. It is conjectured that 'Shebna the scribe,' who was one of those whom the king sent to confer with the Assyrian ambassador (2 Kings 18:18, 26, 37; 19:2; Isa. 36:3, 11, 22; 37:2), was a different person.

Shebuel: captive of God. (1.) One of the descendants of Gershom, who had charge of the temple treasures in the time of David (1 Chr. 23:16; 26:24).

Shecaniah: one intimate with Jehovah. (1.) A priest to whom the tenth lot came forth when David divided the priests (1 Chr. 24:11).

Shechem: shoulder. (1.) The son of Hamor the Hivite (Gen. 33:19; 34).

Sheva: Heb. Shebher. (1.) The son of Caleb (1 Chr. 2:49).

Shewbread: Ex. 25:30 (R.V. marg., 'presence bread'); 1 Chr. 9:32 (marg., 'bread of ordering'); Num. 4:7: called 'hallowed bread' (R.V., 'holy bread') in 1 Sam. 21:1-6.

Shibboleth: river, or an ear of corn. The tribes living on the east of Jordan, separated from their brethren on the west by the deep ravines and the rapid river, gradually came to adopt peculiar customs, and from mixing largely with the Moabites, Ishmaelites, and Ammonites to pronounce certain letters in such a manner as to distinguish them from the other tribes. Thus when the Ephraimites from the west invaded Gilead, and were defeated by the Gileadites under the leadership of Jephthah, and tried to escape by the 'passages of the Jordan,' the Gileadites seized the fords and would allow none to pass who could not pronounce 'shibboleth' with a strong aspirate. This the fugitives were unable to do. They said 'sibboleth,' as the word was pronounced by the tribes on the west, and thus they were detected (Judg. 12:1-6). Forty-two thousand were thus detected, and

Shibmah: fragrance, a town of Reuben, east of Jordan (Num. 32:38).

Shield: used in defensive warfare, varying at different times and under different circumstances in size, form, and material (1 Sam. 17:7; 2 Sam. 1:21; 1 Kings 10:17; 1 Chr. 12:8, 24, 34; Isa. 22:6; Ezek. 39:9; Nahum 2:3).

Shiggaion: from the verb shagah, 'to reel about through drink,' occurs in the title of Ps. 7. The plural form, shigionoth, is found in Hab. 3:1. The word denotes a lyrical poem composed under strong mental emotion; a song of impassioned imagination accompanied with suitable music; a dithyrambic ode.

Shihon: overturning, a town of Issachar (Josh. 19:19).

Shihor: dark, (1 Chr. 13:5), the southwestern boundary of Canaan, the Wady el-'Arish. (See SIHOR; NILE.)

Shihor-Libnath: black-white, a stream on the borders of Asher, probably the modern Nahr Zerka, i.e., the 'crocodile brook,' or 'blue river', which rises in the Carmel range and enters the Mediterranean a little to the north of Caesarea (Josh. 19:26). Crocodiles are still found in the Zerka. Thomson suspects 'that long ages ago some Egyptians, accustomed to worship this ugly creature, settled here (viz., at Caesarea), and brought their gods with them. Once here they would not easily be exterminated' (The Land and the Book).

Shilhim: aqueducts, a town in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:32); called also Sharuhen and Shaaraim (19:6).

Shiloah, The waters of: =Siloah, (Neh. 3:15) and Siloam (q.v.)

Shiloh: generally understood as denoting the Messiah, 'the peaceful one,' as the word signifies (Gen. 49:10). The Vulgate Version translates the word, 'he who is to be sent,' in allusion to the Messiah; the Revised Version, margin, 'till he come to Shiloh;' and the LXX., 'until that which is his shall come to Shiloh.' It is most simple and natural to render the expression, as in the Authorized Version, 'till Shiloh come,' interpreting it as a proper name (comp. Isa. 9:6).

Shilonite: Ahijah the prophet, whose home was in Shiloh, is so designated (1 Kings 11:29; 15:29). The plural form occurs (1 Chr. 9:5), denoting the descendants of Shelah, Judah's youngest son.

Shimea: the hearing prayer. (1.) One of David's sons by Bathsheba (1 Chr. 3:5); called also Shammua (14:4).

Shimeah: (1.) One of David's brothers (2 Sam. 13:3); same as Shimea (4).

Shimei: famous. (1.) A son of Gershon, and grandson of Levi (Num. 3:18; 1 Chr. 6:17, 29); called Shimi in Ex. 6:17.

Shimeon: hearkening. Ezra 10:31.

Shimhi: famous, a Benjamite (1 Chr. 8:21).

Shimrath: guardian, a Benjamite, one of Shimhi's sons (id.).

Shimri: watchman. (1.) A Simeonite (1 Chr. 4:37).

Shimrom: watchman, the fourth son of Issachar (Gen. 46:13; 1 Chr. 7:1; R.V., correctly, 'Shimron').

Shimron: watch-post, an ancient city of the Canaanites; with its villages, allotted to Zebulun (Josh. 19:15); now probably Semunieh, on the northern edge of the plain of Esdraelon, 5 miles west of Nazareth.

Shimron-meron: the same, probably, as Shimron (Josh. 12:20).

Shimshai: the shining one, or sunny, the secretary of Rehum the chancellor, who took part in opposing the rebuilding of the temple after the Captivity (Ezra 4:8, 9, 17-23).

Shinab: cooling, the king of Adamah, in the valley of Siddim, who with his confederates was conquered by Chedorlaomer (Gen. 14:2).

Shinar, The Land of: LXX. and Vulgate 'Senaar;' in the inscriptions, 'Shumir;' probably identical with Babylonia or Southern Mesopotamia, extending almost to the Persian Gulf. Here the tower of Babel was built (Gen. 11:1-6), and the city of Babylon. The name occurs later in Jewish history (Isa. 11:11; Zech. 5:11). Shinar was apparently first peopled by Turanian tribes, who tilled the land and made bricks and built cities. Then tribes of Semites invaded the land and settled in it, and became its rulers. This was followed in course of time by an Elamite invasion; from which the land was finally delivered by Khammurabi, the son of Amarpel ('Amraphel, king of Shinar,' Gen. 14:1), who became the founder of the new empire of Chaldea. (See AMRAPHEL.)

Shiphmite: probably the designation of Zabdi, who has charge of David's vineyards (1 Chr. 27:27).

Shiphrah: beauty, one of the Egyptian midwives (Ex. 1:15).

Shiphtan: judicial, an Ephraimite prince at the time of the division of Canaan (Num. 34:24).

Ships: early used in foreign commerce by the Phoenicians (Gen. 49:13). Moses (Deut. 28:68) and Job (9:26) make reference to them, and Balaam speaks of the 'ships of Chittim' (Num. 24:24). Solomon constructed a navy at Ezion-geber by the assistance of Hiram's sailors (1 Kings 9:26-28; 2 Chr. 8:18). Afterwards, Jehoshaphat sought to provide himself with a navy at the same port, but his ships appear to have been wrecked before they set sail (1 Kings 22:48, 49; 2 Chr. 20:35-37).

Shishak I: =Sheshonk I., king of Egypt. His reign was one of great national success, and a record of his wars and conquests adorns the portico of what are called the 'Bubastite kings' at Karnak, the ancient Thebes. Among these conquests is a record of that of Judea. In the fifth year of Rehoboam's reign Shishak came up against the kingdom of Judah with a powerful army. He took the fenced cities and came to Jerusalem. He pillaged the treasures of the temple and of the royal palace, and carried away the shields of gold which Solomon had made (1 Kings 11:40; 14:25; 2 Chr. 12:2). (See REHOBOAM.) This expedition of the Egyptian king was undertaken at the instigation of Jeroboam for the purpose of humbling Judah. Hostilities between the two kingdoms still continued; but during Rehoboam's reign there was not again the intervention of a third party.

Shittah-tree: (Isa. 41:19; R.V., 'acacia tree'). Shittah wood was employed in making the various parts of the tabernacle in the wilderness, and must therefore have been indigenous in the desert in which the Israelites wandered. It was the acacia or mimosa (Acacia Nilotica and A. seyal). 'The wild acacia (Mimosa Nilotica), under the name of _sunt_, everywhere represents the seneh, or senna, of the burning bush. A slightly different form of the tree, equally common under the name of _seyal_, is the ancient 'shittah,' or, as more usually expressed in the plural form, the 'shittim,' of which the tabernacle was made.' Stanley's Sinai, etc. (Ex. 25:10, 13, 23, 28).

Shittim: acacias, also called 'Abel-shittim' (Num. 33:49), a plain or valley in the land of Moab where the Israelites were encamped after their two victories over Sihon and Og, at the close of their desert wanderings, and from which Joshua sent forth two spies (q.v.) 'secretly' to 'view' the land and Jericho (Josh. 2:1).

Shoa: opulent, the mountain district lying to the north-east of Babylonia, anciently the land of the Guti, or Kuti, the modern Kurdistan. The plain lying between these mountains and the Tigris was called su-Edina, i.e., 'the border of the plain.' This name was sometimes shortened into Suti and Su, and has been regarded as = Shoa (Ezek. 23:23). Some think it denotes a place in Babylon. (See PEKOD.)

Shobab: apostate. (1.) One of David's sons by Bathseheba (2 Sam. 5:14).

Shechinah: a Chaldee word meaning resting-place, not found in Scripture, but used by the later Jews to designate the visible symbol of God's presence in the tabernacle, and afterwards in Solomon's temple. When the Lord led Israel out of Egypt, he went before them 'in a pillar of a cloud.' This was the symbol of his presence with his people. For references made to it during the wilderness wanderings, see Ex. 14:20; 40:34-38; Lev. 9:23, 24; Num. 14:10; 16:19, 42.

Sheep: are of different varieties. Probably the flocks of Abraham and Isaac were of the wild species found still in the mountain regions of Persia and Kurdistan. After the Exodus, and as a result of intercourse with surrounding nations, other species were no doubt introduced into the herds of the people of Israel. They are frequently mentioned in Scripture. The care of a shepherd over his flock is referred to as illustrating God's care over his people (Ps. 23:1, 2; 74:1; 77:20; Isa. 40:11; 53:6; John 10:1-5, 7-16).

Sheep-fold: a strong fenced enclosure for the protection of the sheep gathered within it (Num. 32:24; 1 Chr. 17:7; Ps. 50:9; 78:70). In John 10:16 the Authorized Version renders by 'fold' two distinct Greek words, aule and poimne, the latter of which properly means a 'flock,' and is so rendered in the Revised Version. (See also Matt. 26:31; Luke 2:8; 1 Cor. 9:7.) (See FOLD

Sheep-gate: one of the gates of Jerusalem mentioned by Nehemiah (3:1, 32; 12:39). It was in the eastern wall of the city.

Sheep-market: occurs only in John 5:2 (marg., also R.V., 'sheep-gate'). The word so rendered is an adjective, and it is uncertain whether the noun to be supplied should be 'gate' or, following the Vulgate Version, 'pool.'

Shekel: weight, the common standard both of weight and value among the Hebrews. It is estimated at 220 English grains, or a little more than half an ounce avoirdupois. The 'shekel of the sanctuary' (Ex. 30:13; Num. 3:47) was equal to twenty gerahs (Ezek. 45:12). There were shekels of gold (1 Chr. 21:25), of silver (1 Sam. 9:8), of brass (17:5), and of iron (7). When it became a coined piece of money, the shekel of gold was equivalent to about 2 pound of our money. Six gold shekels, according to the later Jewish system, were equal in value to fifty silver ones.

Shelah: petition. (1.) Judah's third son (Gen. 38:2, 5, 11, 14).

Shelemiah: whom Jehovah repays. (1.) Ezra 10:39.

Shem: a name; renown, the first mentioned of the sons of Noah (Gen. 5:32; 6:10). He was probably the eldest of Noah's sons. The words 'brother of Japheth the elder' in Gen. 10:21 are more correctly rendered 'the elder brother of Japheth,' as in the Revised Version. Shem's name is generally mentioned first in the list of Noah's sons. He and his wife were saved in the ark (7:13). Noah foretold his preeminence over Canaan (9:23-27). He died at the age of six hundred years, having been for many years contemporary with Abraham, according to the usual chronology. The Israelitish nation sprang from him (Gen. 11:10-26; 1 Chr. 1:24-27).

Shema: rumour. (1.) A Reubenite (1 Chr. 5:8).

Shemaah: rumour, a Benjamite whose sons 'came to David to Ziklag' (1 Chr. 12:3).

Shemaiah: whom Jehovah heard. (1.) A prophet in the reign of Rehoboam (1 Kings 12:22-24).

Shemariah: whom Jehovah guards. (1.) One who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:5).

Shemeber: soaring on high, the king of Zeboiim, who joined with the other kings in casting off the yoke of Chedorlaomer. After having been reconquered by him, he was rescued by Abraham (Gen. 14:2).

Sheminith: eight; octave, a musical term, supposed to denote the lowest note sung by men's voices (1 Chr. 15:21; Ps. 6; 12, title).

Shemiramoth: most high name. (1.) A Levite in the reign of Jehoshaphat (2 Chr. 17:8).

Shemuel: heard of God. (1.) The son of Ammihud. He represented Simeon in the division of the land (Num. 34:20).

Shen: a tooth, probably some conspicuous tooth-shaped rock or crag (1 Sam. 7:12), a place between which and Mizpeh Samuel set up his 'Ebenezer.' In the Hebrew the word has the article prefixed, 'the Shen.' The site is unknown.

Shenir: =Senir, (Deut. 3:9; Cant. 4:8), the name given to Mount Hermon (q.v.) by the Sidonians.

Sheol: (Heb., 'the all-demanding world' = Gr. Hades, 'the unknown region'), the invisible world of departed souls. (See HELL

Shepham: a treeless place, Num. 34:10, 11: 'The coast shall go down from Shepham to Riblah.'

Shephatiah: judged of the Lord. (1.) A son of David by Abital (2 Sam. 3:4).

Shepherd: a word naturally of frequent occurence in Scripture. Sometimes the word 'pastor' is used instead (Jer. 2:8; 3:15; 10:21; 12:10; 17:16). This word is used figuratively to represent the relation of rulers to their subjects and of God to his people (Ps. 23:1; 80:1; Isa. 40:11; 44:28; Jer. 25:34, 35; Nahum 3:18; John 10:11, 14; Heb. 13:20; 1 Pet. 2:25; 5:4).

Sherebiah: flame of the Lord, a priest whose name is prominent in connection with the work carried on by Ezra and Nehemiah at Jerusalem (Ezra 8:17, 18, 24-30; Neh. 8:7; 9:4, 5; 10:12).

Sheresh: root, a descendant of Manasseh (1 Chr. 7:16).

Sherezer: one of the messengers whom the children of the Captivity sent to Jerusalem 'to pray for them before the Lord' (Zech. 7:2).

Sheriffs: (Dan. 3:2), Babylonian officers.

Sheshach: (Jer. 25:26), supposed to be equivalent to Babel (Babylon), according to a secret (cabalistic) mode of writing among the Jews of unknown antiquity, which consisted in substituting the last letter of the Hebrew alphabet for the first, the last but one for the second, and so on. Thus the letters sh, sh, ch become b, b, l, i.e., Babel. This is supposed to be confirmed by a reference to Jer. 51:41, where Sheshach and Babylon are in parallel clauses. There seems to be no reason to doubt that Babylon is here intended by this name. (See Streane's Jeremiah, l.c.)

Sheshai: whitish, one of the sons of Anak (Num. 13:22). When the Israelites obtained possession of the country the sons of Anak were expelled and slain (Josh. 15:14; Judg. 1:10).

Sheshbazzar: O sun-god, defend the lord! (Ezra 1:8, 11), probably another name for Zerubbabel (q.v.), Ezra 2:2; Hag. 1:12, 14; Zech. 4:6, 10.

Sheth: tumult. (1.) 'The children of Sheth' (Num. 24:17); R.V., 'the sons of tumult,' which is probably the correct rendering, as there is no evidence that this is a proper name here.

Shethar: a star, a prince at the court of Ahasuerus (Esther 1:14).

Shethar-boznai: star of splendour, a Persian officer who vainly attempted to hinder the rebuilding of the temple (Ezra 5:3, 6; 6:6, 13).

Sion: elevated. (1.) Denotes Mount Hermon in Deut. 4:48; called Sirion by the Sidonians, and by the Amorites Shenir (Deut. 3:9). (See HERMON.)

Siphmoth: fruitful places, some unknown place in the south, where David found friends when he fled from Saul (1 Sam. 30:28).

Sirah: retiring, a well from which Joab's messenger brought back Abner (2 Sam. 3:26). It is now called 'Ain Sarah, and is situated about a mile from Hebron, on the road to the north.

Sirion: a breastplate, the Sidonian name of Hermon (q.v.), Deut. 3:9; Ps. 29:6.

Sisera: (Egypt. Ses-Ra, 'servant of Ra'). (1.) The captain of Jabin's army (Judg. 4:2), which was routed and destroyed by the army of Barak on the plain of Esdraelon. After all was lost he fled to the settlement of Heber the Kenite in the plain of Zaanaim. Jael, Heber's wife, received him into her tent with apparent hospitality, and 'gave him butter' (i.e., lebben, or curdled milk) 'in a lordly dish.' Having drunk the refreshing beverage, he lay down, and soon sank into the sleep of the weary. While he lay asleep Jael crept stealthily up to him, and taking in her hand one of the tent pegs, with a mallet she drove it with such force through his temples that it entered into the ground where he lay, and 'at her feet he bowed, he fell; where he bowed, there he fell down dead.' The part of Deborah's song (Judg. 5:24-27) referring to the death of Sisera (which is a 'mere patriotic outburst,' and 'is no proof that purer eyes would have failed to see gross sin mingling with Jael's service to Israel') is thus rendered by Professor Roberts (Old Testament Revision):

Sitnah: strife, the second of the two wells dug by Isaac, whose servants here contended with the Philistines (Gen. 26:21). It has been identified with the modern Shutneh, in the valley of Gerar, to the west of Rehoboth, about 20 miles south of Beersheba.

Sitting: the attitude generally assumed in Palestine by those who were engaged in any kind of work. 'The carpenter saws, planes, and hews with his hand-adze, sitting on the ground or upon the plank he is planning. The washerwoman sits by the tub; and, in a word, no one stands when it is possible to sit. Shopkeepers always sit, and Levi sitting at the receipt of custom (Matt. 9:9) is the exact way to state the case.', Thomson, Land and Book.

Sivan: a Persian word (Assyr, sivanu, 'bricks'), used after the Captivity as the name of the third month of the Jewish year, extending from the new moon in June to the new moon in July (Esther 8:9).

Skin, Coats made of: (Gen. 3:21). Skins of rams and badgers were used as a covering for the tabernacle (Ex. 25:5; Num. 4:8-14).

Skull, The place of a: See GOLGOTHA.

Slave: Jer. 2:14 (A.V.), but not there found in the original. In Rev. 18:13 the word 'slaves' is the rendering of a Greek word meaning 'bodies.' The Hebrew and Greek words for slave are usually rendered simply 'servant,' 'bondman,' or 'bondservant.' Slavery as it existed under the Mosaic law has no modern parallel. That law did not originate but only regulated the already existing custom of slavery (Ex. 21:20, 21, 26, 27; Lev. 25:44-46; Josh. 9:6-27). The gospel in its spirit and genius is hostile to slavery in every form, which under its influence is gradually disappearing from among men.

Slime: (Gen. 11:3; LXX., 'asphalt;' R.V. marg., 'bitumen'). The vale of Siddim was full of slime pits (14:10). Jochebed daubed the 'ark of bulrushes' with slime (Ex. 2:3). (See PITCH.)

Sling: With a sling and a stone David smote the Philistine giant (1 Sam. 17:40, 49). There were 700 Benjamites who were so skilled in its use that with the left hand they 'could sling stones at a hair breadth, and not miss' (Judg. 20:16; 1 Chr. 12:2). It was used by the Israelites in war (2 Kings 3:25). (See ARMS

Smith: The Hebrews were not permitted by the Philistines in the days of Samuel to have a smith amongst them, lest they should make them swords and spears (1 Sam. 13:19). Thus the Philistines sought to make their conquest permanent (comp. 2 Kings 24:16).

Smyrna: myrrh, an ancient city of Ionia, on the western coast of Asia Minor, about 40 miles to the north of Ephesus. It is now the chief city of Anatolia, having a mixed population of about 200,000, of whom about one-third are professed Christians. The church founded here was one of the seven addressed by our Lord (Rev. 2:8-11). The celebrated Polycarp, a pupil of the apostle John, was in the second century a prominent leader in the church of Smyrna. Here he suffered martyrdom, A.D. 155.

Snail: (1.) Heb. homit, among the unclean creeping things (Lev. 11:30). This was probably the sand-lizard, of which there are many species in the wilderness of Judea and the Sinai peninsula.

Snare: The expression (Amos 3:5), 'Shall one take up a snare from the earth?' etc. (Authorized Version), ought to be, as in the Revised Version, 'Shall a snare spring up from the ground?' etc. (See GIN.)

Snow: Common in Palestine in winter (Ps. 147:16). The snow on the tops of the Lebanon range is almost always within view throughout the whole year. The word is frequently used figuratively by the sacred writers (Job 24:19; Ps. 51:7; 68:14; Isa. 1:18). It is mentioned only once in the historical books (2 Sam. 23:20). It was 'carried to Tyre, Sidon, and Damascus as a luxury, and labourers sweltering in the hot harvest-fields used it for the purpose of cooling the water which they drank (Prov. 25:13; Jer. 18:14). No doubt Herod Antipas, at his feasts in Tiberias, enjoyed also from this very source the modern luxury of ice-water.'

So: (Nubian, Sabako), an Ethiopian king who brought Egypt under his sway. He was bribed by Hoshea to help him against the Assyrian monarch Shalmaneser (2 Kings 17:4). This was a return to the policy that had been successful in the reign of Jeroboam I.

Soap: (Jer. 2:22; Mal. 3:2; Heb. borith), properly a vegetable alkali, obtained from the ashes of certain plants, particularly the salsola kali (saltwort), which abounds on the shores of the Dead Sea and of the Mediterranean. It does not appear that the Hebrews were acquainted with what is now called 'soap,' which is a compound of alkaline carbonates with oleaginous matter. The word 'purely' in Isa. 1:25 (R.V., 'throughly;' marg., 'as with lye') is lit. 'as with _bor_.' This word means 'clearness,' and hence also that which makes clear, or pure, alkali. 'The ancients made use of alkali mingled with oil, instead of soap (Job 9:30), and also in smelting metals, to make them melt and flow more readily and purely' (Gesenius).

Socho: a fence; hedge, (1 Chr. 4:18; R.V., Soco)=So'choh (1 Kings 4:10; R.V., Socoh), Sho'choh (1 Sam. 17:1; R.V., Socoh), Sho'co (2 Chr. 11:7; R.V., Soco), Sho'cho (2 Chr. 28:18; R.V., Soco), a city in the plain or lowland of Judah, where the Philistines encamped when they invaded Judah after their defeat at Michmash. It lay on the northern side of the valley of Elah (Wady es-Sunt). It has been identified with the modern Khurbet Shuweikeh, about 14 miles south-west of Jerusalem. In this campaign Goliath was slain, and the Philistines were completely routed.

Sodom: burning; the walled, a city in the vale of Siddim (Gen. 13:10; 14:1-16). The wickedness of its inhabitants brought down upon it fire from heaven, by which it was destroyed (18:16-33; 19:1-29; Deut. 23:17). This city and its awful destruction are frequently alluded to in Scripture (Deut. 29:23; 32:32; Isa. 1:9, 10; 3:9; 13:19; Jer. 23:14; Ezek. 16:46-56; Zeph. 2:9; Matt. 10:15; Rom. 9:29; 2 Pet. 2:6, etc.). No trace of it or of the other cities of the plain has been discovered, so complete was their destruction. Just opposite the site of Zoar, on the south-west coast of the Dead Sea, is a range of low hills, forming a mass of mineral salt called Jebel Usdum, 'the hill of Sodom.' It has been concluded, from this and from other considerations, that the cities of the plain stood at the southern end of the Dead Sea. Others, however, with much greater probability, contend that they stood at the northern end of the sea. [in 1897].

Sodoma: (Rom. 9:29; R.V., 'Sodom'), the Greek form for Sodom.

Sodomites: those who imitated the licentious wickedness of Sodom (Deut. 23:17; 1 Kings 14:24; Rom. 1:26, 27). Asa destroyed them 'out of the land' (1 Kings 15:12), as did also his son Jehoshaphat (22:46).

Solemn meeting: (Isa. 1:13), the convocation on the eighth day of the Feast of Tabernacles (Lev. 23:36; Num. 29:35, R.V., 'solemn assembly;' marg., 'closing festival'). It is the name given also to the convocation held on the seventh day of the Passover (Deut. 16:8).

Solomon: peaceful, (Heb. Shelomoh), David's second son by Bathsheba, i.e., the first after their legal marriage (2 Sam. 12). He was probably born about B.C. 1035 (1 Chr. 22:5; 29:1). He succeeded his father on the throne in early manhood, probably about sixteen or eighteen years of age. Nathan, to whom his education was intrusted, called him Jedidiah, i.e., 'beloved of the Lord' (2 Sam. 12:24, 25). He was the first king of Israel 'born in the purple.' His father chose him as his successor, passing over the claims of his elder sons: 'Assuredly Solomon my son shall reign after me.' His history is recorded in 1 Kings 1-11 and 2 Chr. 1-9. His elevation to the throne took place before his father's death, and was hastened on mainly by Nathan and Bathsheba, in consequence of the rebellion of Adonijah (1 Kings 1:5-40). During his long reign of forty years the Hebrew monarchy gained its highest splendour. This period has well been called the 'Augustan age' of the Jewish annals. The first half of his reign was, however, by far the brighter and more prosperous; the latter half was clouded by the idolatries into which he fell, mainly from his heathen intermarriages (1 Kings 11:1-8; 14:21, 31).

Solomon's Porch: (John 10:23; Acts 3:11; 5:12), a colonnade, or cloister probably, on the eastern side of the temple. It is not mentioned in connection with the first temple, but Josephus mentions a porch, so called, in Herod's temple (q.v.).

Solomon, Song of: called also, after the Vulgate, the 'Canticles.' It is the 'song of songs' (1:1), as being the finest and most precious of its kind; the noblest song, 'das Hohelied,' as Luther calls it. The Solomonic authorship of this book has been called in question, but evidences, both internal and external, fairly establish the traditional view that it is the product of Solomon's pen. It is an allegorical poem setting forth the mutual love of Christ and the Church, under the emblem of the bridegroom and the bride. (Compare Matt. 9:15; John 3:29; Eph. 5:23, 27, 29; Rev. 19:7-9; 21:2, 9; 22:17. Compare also Ps. 45; Isa. 54:4-6; 62:4, 5; Jer. 2:2; 3:1, 20; Ezek. 16; Hos. 2:16, 19, 20.)

Son of God: The plural, 'sons of God,' is used (Gen. 6:2, 4) to denote the pious descendants of Seth. In Job 1:6; 38:7 this name is applied to the angels. Hosea uses the phrase (1:10) to designate the gracious relation in which men stand to God.

Son of man: (1.) Denotes mankind generally, with special reference to their weakness and frailty (Job 25:6; Ps. 8:4; 144:3; 146:3; Isa. 51:12, etc.).

Songs: of Moses (Ex. 15; Num. 21:17; Deut. 32; Rev. 15:3), Deborah (Judg. 5), Hannah (1 Sam. 2), David (2 Sam. 22, and Psalms), Mary (Luke 1:46-55), Zacharias (Luke 1:68-79), the angels (Luke 2:13), Simeon (Luke 2:29), the redeemed (Rev. 5:9; 19), Solomon (see SOLOMON, SONGS OF).

Soothsayer: one who pretends to prognosticate future events. Baalam is so called (Josh. 13:22; Heb. kosem, a 'diviner,' as rendered 1 Sam. 6:2; rendered 'prudent,' Isa. 3:2). In Isa. 2:6 and Micah 5:12 (Heb. yonenim, i.e., 'diviners of the clouds') the word is used of the Chaldean diviners who studied the clouds. In Dan. 2:27; 5:7 the word is the rendering of the Chaldee gazrin, i.e., 'deciders' or 'determiners', here applied to Chaldean astrologers, 'who, by casting nativities from the place of the stars at one's birth, and by various arts of computing and divining, foretold the fortunes and destinies of individuals.', Gesenius, Lex. Heb. (See SORCERER.)

Sop: a morsel of bread (John 13:26; comp. Ruth 2:14). Our Lord took a piece of unleavened bread, and dipping it into the broth of bitter herbs at the Paschal meal, gave it to Judas. (Comp. Ruth 2:14.)

Sopater: the father who saves, probably the same as Sosipater, a kinsman of Paul (Rom. 16:21), a Christian of the city of Berea who accompanied Paul into Asia (Acts 20:4-6).

Sorcerer: from the Latin sortiarius, one who casts lots, or one who tells the lot of others. (See DIVINATION.)

Sorek: choice vine, the name of a valley, i.e., a torrent-bed, now the Wady Surar, 'valley of the fertile spot,' which drains the western Judean hills, and flowing by Makkedah and Jabneel, falls into the sea some eight miles south of Joppa. This was the home of Deliah, whom Samson loved (Judg. 16:4).

Sosipater: (See SOPATER.)

Sosthenes: safe in strength, the chief ruler of the synagogue at Corinth, who was seized and beaten by the mob in the presence of Gallio, the Roman governor, when he refused to proceed against Paul at the instigation of the Jews (Acts 18:12-17). The motives of this assault against Sosthenes are not recorded, nor is it mentioned whether it was made by Greeks or Romans. Some identify him, but without sufficient grounds, with one whom Paul calls 'Sosthenes our brother,' a convert to the faith (1 Cor. 1:1).

South: Heb. Negeb, that arid district to the south of Palestine through which lay the caravan route from Central Palestine to Egypt (Gen. 12:9; 13:1, 3; 46:1-6). 'The Negeb comprised a considerable but irregularly-shaped tract of country, its main portion stretching from the mountains and lowlands of Judah in the north to the mountains of Azazemeh in the south, and from the Dead Sea and southern Ghoron the east to the Mediterranean on the west.' In Ezek. 20:46 (21:1 in Heb.) three different Hebrew words are all rendered 'south.' (1) 'Set thy face toward the south' (Teman, the region on the right, 1 Sam. 33:24); (2) 'Drop thy word toward the south' (Negeb, the region of dryness, Josh. 15:4); (3) 'Prophesy against the forest of the south field' (Darom, the region of brightness, Deut. 33:23). In Job 37:9 the word 'south' is literally 'chamber,' used here in the sense of treasury (comp. 38:22; Ps. 135:7). This verse is rendered in the Revised Version 'out of the chamber of the south.'

Sovereignty: of God, his absolute right to do all things according to his own good pleasure (Dan. 4:25, 35; Rom. 9:15-23; 1 Tim. 6:15; Rev. 4:11).

Spain: Paul expresses his intention (Rom. 15:24, 28) to visit Spain. There is, however, no evidence that he ever carried it into effect, although some think that he probably did so between his first and second imprisonment. (See TARSHISH.)

Sparrow: Mentioned among the offerings made by the very poor. Two sparrows were sold for a farthing (Matt. 10:29), and five for two farthings (Luke 12:6). The Hebrew word thus rendered is _tsippor_, which properly denotes the whole family of small birds which feed on grain (Lev. 14:4; Ps. 84:3; 102:7). The Greek word of the New Testament is _strouthion_ (Matt. 10:29-31), which is thus correctly rendered.

Spicery: Heb. nechoth, identified with the Arabic naka'at, the gum tragacanth, obtained from the astralagus, of which there are about twenty species found in Palestine. The tragacanth of commerce is obtained from the A. tragacantha. 'The gum exudes plentifully under the heat of the sun on the leaves, thorns, and exteremity of the twigs.'

Spices: aromatic substances, of which several are named in Ex. 30. They were used in the sacred anointing oil (Ex. 25:6; 35:8; 1 Chr. 9:29), and in embalming the dead (2 Chr. 16:14; Luke 23:56; 24:1; John 19:39, 40). Spices were stored by Hezekiah in his treasure-house (2 Kings 20:13; Isa. 39:2).

Spider: The trust of the hypocrite is compared to the spider's web or house (Job 8:14). It is said of the wicked by Isaiah that they 'weave the spider's web' (59:5), i.e., their works and designs are, like the spider's web, vain and useless. The Hebrew word here used is _'akkabish_, 'a swift weaver.'

Spies: When the Israelites reached Kadesh for the first time, and were encamped there, Moses selected twelve spies from among the chiefs of the divisions of the tribes, and sent them forth to spy the land of Canaan (Num. 13), and to bring back to him a report of its actual condition. They at once proceeded on their important errand, and went through the land as far north as the district round Lake Merom. After about six weeks' absence they returned. Their report was very discouraging, and the people were greatly alarmed, and in a rebellious spirit proposed to elect a new leader and return to Egypt. Only two of the spies, Caleb and Joshua, showed themselves on this occasion stout-hearted and faithful. All their appeals and remonstrances were in vain. Moses announced that as a punishment for their rebellion they must now wander in the wilderness till a new generation should arise which would go up and posses the land. The spies had been forty days absent on their expedition, and for each day the Israelites were to be wanderers for a year in the desert. (See ESHCOL.)

Spikenard: (Heb. nerd), a much-valued perfume (Cant. 1:12; 4:13, 14). It was 'very precious', i.e., very costly (Mark 14:3; John 12:3,5). It is the root of an Indian plant, the Nardostachys jatamansi, of the family of Valeriance, growing on the Himalaya mountains. It is distinguished by its having many hairy spikes shooting out from one root. It is called by the Arabs sunbul Hindi, 'the Indian spike.' In the New Testament this word is the rendering of the Greek nardos pistike. The margin of the Revised Version in these passages has 'pistic nard,' pistic being perhaps a local name. Some take it to mean genuine, and others liquid. The most probable opinion is that the word pistike designates the nard as genuine or faithfully prepared.

Spirit: (Heb. ruah; Gr. pneuma), properly wind or breath. In 2 Thess. 2:8 it means 'breath,' and in Eccl. 8:8 the vital principle in man. It also denotes the rational, immortal soul by which man is distinguished (Acts 7:59; 1 Cor. 5:5; 6:20; 7:34), and the soul in its separate state (Heb. 12:23), and hence also an apparition (Job 4:15; Luke 24:37, 39), an angel (Heb. 1:14), and a demon (Luke 4:36; 10:20). This word is used also metaphorically as denoting a tendency (Zech. 12:10; Luke 13:11).

Spirit, Holy: See HOLY GHOST.

Sponge: occurs only in the narrative of the crucifixion (Matt. 27:48; Mark 15:36; John 19:29). It is ranked as a zoophyte. It is found attached to rocks at the bottom of the sea.

Spouse: (Cant. 4:8-12; Hos. 4:13, 14) may denote either husband or wife, but in the Scriptures it denotes only the latter.

Spring: (Heb. 'ain, 'the bright open source, the eye of the landscape'). To be carefully distinguished from 'well' (q.v.). 'Springs' mentioned in Josh. 10:40 (Heb. 'ashdoth) should rather be 'declivities' or 'slopes' (R.V.), i.e., the undulating ground lying between the lowlands (the shephelah) and the central range of hills.

Stachys: spike; an ear of corn, a convert at Rome whom Paul salutes (Rom. 16:9).

Stacte: (Heb. nataph), one of the components of the perfume which was offered on the golden altar (Ex. 30:34; R.V. marg., 'opobalsamum'). The Hebrew word is from a root meaning 'to distil,' and it has been by some interpreted as distilled myrrh. Others regard it as the gum of the storax tree, or rather shrub, the Styrax officinale. 'The Syrians value this gum highly, and use it medicinally as an emulcent in pectoral complaints, and also in perfumery.'

Star, Morning: a name figuratively given to Christ (Rev. 22:16; comp. 2 Pet. 1:19). When Christ promises that he will give the 'morning star' to his faithful ones, he 'promises that he will give to them himself, that he will give to them himself, that he will impart to them his own glory and a share in his own royal dominion; for the star is evermore the symbol of royalty (Matt. 2:2), being therefore linked with the sceptre (Num. 24:17). All the glory of the world shall end in being the glory of the Church.' Trench's Comm.

Stargazers: (Isa. 47:13), those who pretend to tell what will occur by looking upon the stars. The Chaldean astrologers 'divined by the rising and setting, the motions, aspects, colour, degree of light, etc., of the stars.'

Stars: The eleven stars (Gen. 37:9); the seven (Amos 5:8); wandering (Jude 1:13); seen in the east at the birth of Christ, probably some luminous meteors miraculously formed for this specific purpose (Matt. 2:2-10); stars worshipped (Deut. 4:19; 2 Kings 17:16; 21:3; Jer. 19:13); spoken of symbolically (Num. 24:17; Rev. 1:16, 20; 12:1). (See ASTROLOGERS.)

Stater: Greek word rendered 'piece of money' (Matt. 17:27, A.V.; and 'shekel' in R.V.). It was equal to two didrachmas ('tribute money,' 17:24), or four drachmas, and to about 2s. 6d. of our money. (See SHEKEL.)

Stealing: See THEFT.

Steel: The 'bow of steel' in (A.V.) 2 Sam. 22:35; Job 20:24; Ps. 18:34 is in the Revised Version 'bow of brass' (Heb. kesheth-nehushah). In Jer. 15:12 the same word is used, and is also rendered in the Revised Version 'brass.' But more correctly it is copper (q.v.), as brass in the ordinary sense of the word (an alloy of copper and zinc) was not known to the ancients.

Stephanas: crown, a member of the church at Corinth, whose family were among those the apostle had baptized (1 Cor. 1:16; 16:15, 17). He has been supposed by some to have been the 'jailer of Philippi' (comp. Acts 16:33). The First Epistle to the Corinthians was written from Philippi some six years after the jailer's conversion, and he was with the apostle there at that time.

Stephen: one of the seven deacons, who became a preacher of the gospel. He was the first Christian martyr. His personal character and history are recorded in Acts 6. 'He fell asleep' with a prayer for his persecutors on his lips (7:60). Devout men carried him to his grave (8:2).

Stoics: a sect of Greek philosophers at Athens, so called from the Greek word stoa i.e., a 'porch' or 'portico,' where they have been called 'the Pharisees of Greek paganism.' The founder of the Stoics was Zeno, who flourished about B.C. 300. He taught his disciples that a man's happiness consisted in bringing himself into harmony with the course of the universe. They were trained to bear evils with indifference, and so to be independent of externals. Materialism, pantheism, fatalism, and pride were the leading features of this philosophy.

Stomacher: (Isa. 3:24), an article of female attire, probably some sort of girdle around the breast.

Stone: Stones were commonly used for buildings, also as memorials of important events (Gen. 28:18; Josh. 24:26, 27; 1 Sam. 7:12, etc.). They were gathered out of cultivated fields (Isa. 5:2; comp. 2 Kings 3:19). This word is also used figuratively of believers (1 Pet. 2:4, 5), and of the Messiah (Ps. 118:22; Isa. 28:16; Matt. 21:42; Acts 4:11, etc.). In Dan. 2:45 it refers also to the Messiah. He is there described as 'cut out of the mountain.' (See ROCK.)

Stones, Precious: Frequently referred to (1 Kings 10:2; 2 Chr. 3:6; 9:10; Rev. 18:16; 21:19). There are about twenty different names of such stones in the Bible. They are figuratively introduced to denote value, beauty, durability (Cant. 5:14; Isa 54:11, 12; Lam. 4:7).

Stoning: a form of punishment (Lev. 20:2; 24:14; Deut. 13:10; 17:5; 22:21) prescribed for certain offences. Of Achan (Josh. 7:25), Naboth (1 Kings 21), Stephen (Acts 7:59), Paul (Acts 14:19; 2 Cor. 11:25).

Stork: Heb. hasidah, meaning 'kindness,' indicating thus the character of the bird, which is noted for its affection for its young. It is in the list of birds forbidden to be eaten by the Levitical law (Lev. 11:19; Deut. 14:18). It is like the crane, but larger in size. Two species are found in Palestine, the white, which are dispersed in pairs over the whole country; and the black, which live in marshy places and in great flocks. They migrate to Palestine periodically (about the 22nd of March). Jeremiah alludes to this (Jer. 8:7). At the appointed time they return with unerring sagacity to their old haunts, and re-occupy their old nests. 'There is a well-authenticated account of the devotion of a stork which, at the burning of the town of Delft, after repeated and unsuccessful attempts to carry off her young, chose rather to remain and perish with them than leave them to their fate. Well might the Romans call it the pia avis!'

Strain at: Simply a misprint for 'strain out' (Matt. 23:24).

Shobach: poured out, the 'captain of the host of Hadarezer' when he mustered his vassals and tributaries from beyond 'the river Euphrates' (2 Sam. 10:15-18); called also Shophach (1 Chr. 19:16).

Shobai: captors (Ezra 2:42).

Shobal: pilgrim. (1.) The second son of Seir the Horite; one of the Horite 'dukes' (Gen. 36:20).

Shobi: captor, son of Nahash of Rabbah, the Ammonite. He showed kindness to David when he fled from Jerusalem to Mahanaim (2 Sam. 17:27).

Shocho: (2 Chr. 28:18) = Shochoh (1 Sam. 17:1) = Shoco (2 Chr. 11:7). See SOCOH.

Shoe: Of various forms, from the mere sandal (q.v.) to the complete covering of the foot. The word so rendered (A.V.) in Deut. 33:25, _min'al_, 'a bar,' is derived from a root meaning 'to bolt' or 'shut fast,' and hence a fastness or fortress. The verse has accordingly been rendered 'iron and brass shall be thy fortress,' or, as in the Revised Version, 'thy bars [marg., 'shoes'] shall be iron and brass.'

Shomer: watchman. (1.) The mother of Jehozabad, who murdered Joash (2 Kings 12:21); called also Shimrith, a Moabitess (2 Chr. 24:26).

Shophan: hidden, or hollow, a town east of Jordan (Num. 32:35), built by the children of Gad. This word should probably be joined with the word preceding it in this passage, Atroth-Shophan, as in the Revised Version.

Shoshannim: lilies, the name of some musical instrument, probably like a lily in shape (Ps. 45; 69, title). Some think that an instrument of six strings is meant.

Shoshannim-Eduth: in title of Ps. 80 (R.V. marg., 'lilies, a testimony'), probably the name of the melody to which the psalm was to be sung.

Shrines, Silver: little models and medallions of the temple and image of Diana of Ephesus (Acts 19:24). The manufacture of these was a very large and profitable business.

Shua: wealth. (1.) A Canaanite whose daughter was married to Judah (1 Chr. 2:3).

Shuah: prostration; a pit. (1.) One of Abraham's sons by Keturah (Gen. 25:2; Chr. 1:32). (2.) 1 Chr. 4:11.

Shual, The land of: land of the fox, a district in the tribe of Benjamin (1 Sam. 13:17); possibly the same as Shalim (9:4), in the neighbourhood of Shaalabbin (Josh. 19:42).

Shuhite: a designation of Bildad (Job 2:11), probably because he was a descendant of Shuah.

Shulamite: the same, as some think, with 'Shunammite,' from 'Shunem:' otherwise, the import of the word is uncertain (Cant. 6:13; R.V., 'Shulammite').

Shunammite: a person of Shunem (1 Kings 1:3; 2 Kings 4:12). The Syr. and Arab. read 'Sulamite.'

Shunem: two resting-places, a little village in the tribe of Issachar, to the north of Jezreel and south of Mount Gilboa (Josh. 19:18), where the Philistines encamped when they came against Saul (1 Sam. 28:4), and where Elisha was hospitably entertained by a rich woman of the place. On the sudden death of this woman's son she hastened to Carmel, 20 miles distant across the plain, to tell Elisha, and to bring him with her to Shunem. There, in the 'prophet's chamber,' the dead child lay; and Elisha entering it, shut the door and prayed earnestly: and the boy was restored to life (2 Kings 4:8-37). This woman afterwards retired during the famine to the low land of the Philistines; and on returning a few years afterwards, found her house and fields in the possession of a stranger. She appealed to the king at Samaria, and had them in a somewhat remarkable manner restored to her (comp. 2 Kings 8:1-6).

Shur: an enclosure; a wall, a part, probably, of the Arabian desert, on the north-eastern border of Egypt, giving its name to a wilderness extending from Egypt toward Philistia (Gen. 16:7; 20:1; 25:18; Ex.15:22). The name was probably given to it from the wall (or shur) which the Egyptians built to defend their frontier on the north-east from the desert tribes. This wall or line of fortifications extended from Pelusium to Heliopolis.

Shushan: a lily, the Susa of Greek and Roman writers, once the capital of Elam. It lay in the uplands of Susiana, on the east of the Tigris, about 150 miles to the north of the head of the Persian Gulf. It is the modern Shush, on the northwest of Shuster. Once a magnificent city, it is now an immense mass of ruins. Here Daniel saw one of his visions (Dan. 8); and here also Nehemiah (Neh. 1) began his public life. Most of the events recorded in the Book of Esther took place here. Modern explorers have brought to light numerous relics, and the ground-plan of the splendid palace of Shushan, one of the residences of the great king, together with numerous specimens of ancient art, which illustrate the statements of Scripture regarding it (Dan. 8:2). The great hall of this palace (Esther 1) 'consisted of several magnificent groups of columns, together with a frontage of 343 feet 9 inches, and a depth of 244 feet. These groups were arranged into a central phalanx of thirty-six columns (six rows of six each), flanked on the west, north, and east by an equal number, disposed in double rows of six each, and distant from them 64 feet 2 inches.' The inscriptions on the ruins represent that the palace was founded by Darius and completed by Artaxerxes.

Shushan-Eduth: lily of the testimony, the title of Ps. 60. (See SHOSHANNIM

Sibbecai: the Lord sustains, one of David's heroes (1 Chr. 11:29), general of the eighth division of the army (27:11). He slew the giant Saph in the battle of Gob (2 Sam. 21:18; R.V., 'Sibbechai'). Called also Mebunnai (23:27).

Sibmah: coolness; fragrance, a town in Reuben, in the territory of Moab, on the east of Jordan (Josh. 13:19); called also Shebam and Shibmah (Num. 32:3, 38). It was famous for its vines (Isa. 16:9; Jer. 48:32). It has been identified with the ruin of Sumieh, where there are rock-cut wine-presses. This fact explains the words of the prophets referred to above. It was about 5 miles east of Heshbon.

Sichem: =She'chem, (q.v.), Gen. 12:6.

Sickle: of the Egyptians resembled that in modern use. The ears of corn were cut with it near the top of the straw. There was also a sickle used for warlike purposes, more correctly, however, called a pruning-hook (Deut. 16:9; Jer. 50:16, marg., 'scythe;' Joel 3:13; Mark 4:29).

Siddim, Vale of: valley of the broad plains, 'which is the salt sea' (Gen. 14:3, 8, 10), between Engedi and the cities of the plain, at the south end of the Dead Sea. It was 'full of slime-pits' (R.V., 'bitumen pits'). Here Chedorlaomer and the confederate kings overthrew the kings of Sodom and the cities of the plain. God afterwards, on account of their wickedness, 'overthrew those cities, and all the plain, and all the inhabitants of the cities;' and the smoke of their destruction 'went up as the smoke of a furnace' (19:24-28), and was visible from Mamre, where Abraham dwelt.

Sidon: fishing; fishery, Gen. 10:15, 19 (A.V. marg., Tzidon; R.V., Zidon); Matt. 11:21, 22; Luke 6:17. (See ZIDON.)

Signet: a seal used to attest documents (Dan. 6:8-10, 12). In 6:17, this word properly denotes a ring. The impression of a signet ring on fine clay has recently been discovered among the ruins at Nineveh. It bears the name and title of an Egyptian king. Two actual signet rings of ancient Egyptian monarchs (Cheops and Horus) have also been discovered.

Sihon: striking down. The whole country on the east of Jordan, from the Arnon to the Jabbok, was possessed by the Amorites, whose king, Sihon, refused to permit the Israelites to pass through his territory, and put his army in array against them. The Israelites went forth against him to battle, and gained a complete victory. The Amorites were defeated; Sihon, his sons, and all his people were smitten with the sword, his walled towns were captured, and the entire country of the Amorites was taken possession of by the Israelites (Num. 21:21-30; Deut. 2:24-37).

Sihor: (correctly Shi'hor) black; dark the name given to the river Nile in Isa. 23:3; Jer. 2:18. In Josh. 13:3 it is probably 'the river of Egypt', i.e., the Wady el-Arish (1 Chr. 13:5), which flows 'before Egypt', i.e., in a north-easterly direction from Egypt, and enters the sea about 50 miles south-west of Gaza.

Silas: wood, a prominent member of the church at Jerusalem; also called Silvanus. He and Judas, surnamed Barsabas, were chosen by the church there to accompany Paul and Barnabas on their return to Antioch from the council of the apostles and elders (Acts 15:22), as bearers of the decree adopted by the council. He assisted Paul there in his evangelistic labours, and was also chosen by him to be his companion on his second missionary tour (Acts 16:19-24). He is referred to in the epistles under the name of Silvanus (2 Cor. 1:19; 1 Thess. 1:1; 2 Thess. 1:1; 1 Pet. 5:12). There is no record of the time or place of his death.

Silk: Heb. demeshek, 'damask,' silk cloth manufactured at Damascus, Amos 3:12. A.V., 'in the corner of a bed, and in Damascus in a couch;' R.V., 'in the corner of a couch, and on the silken cushions of a bed' (marg., 'in Damascus on a bed').

Silla: a highway; a twig, only in 2 Kings 12:20. If taken as a proper name (as in the LXX. and other versions), the locality is unknown.

Siloah, The pool of: Heb. shelah; i.e., 'the dart', Neh. 3:15; with the art. _shiloah_, 'sending,' Isa. 8:6 (comp. 7:3)=Siloam (q.v.)

Siloam, Pool of: sent or sending. Here a notable miracle was wrought by our Lord in giving sight to the blind (John 9:7-11). It has been identified with the Birket Silwan in the lower Tyropoeon valley, to the south-east of the hill of Zion.

Siloam, Tower of: mentioned only Luke 13:4. The place here spoken of is the village now called Silwan, or Kefr Silwan, on the east of the valley of Kidron, and to the north-east of the pool. It stands on the west slope of the Mount of Olives.

Silver: used for a great variety of purposes, as may be judged from the frequent references to it in Scripture. It first appears in commerce in Gen. 13:2; 23:15, 16. It was largely employed for making vessels for the sanctuary in the wilderness (Ex. 26:19; 27:17; Num. 7:13, 19; 10:2). There is no record of its having been found in Syria or Palestine. It was brought in large quantities by foreign merchants from abroad, from Spain and India and other countries probably.

Silverling: (Isa. 7:23). Literally the words are 'at a thousand of silver', i.e., 'pieces of silver,' or shekels.

Simeon: hearing. (1.) The second son of Jacob by Leah (Gen. 29:33). He was associated with Levi in the terrible act of vengeance against Hamor and the Shechemites (34:25, 26). He was detained by Joseph in Egypt as a hostage (42:24). His father, when dying, pronounced a malediction against him (49:5-7). The words in the Authorized Version (49:6), 'they digged down a wall,' ought to be, as correctly rendered in the Revised Version, 'they houghed an ox.'

Simeon, The tribe of: was 'divided and scattered' according to the prediction in Gen. 49:5-7. They gradually dwindled in number, and sank into a position of insignificance among the other tribes. They decreased in the wilderness by about two-thirds (comp. Num. 1:23; 26:14). Moses pronounces no blessing on this tribe. It is passed by in silence (Deut. 33).

Simon: the abbreviated form of Simeon. (1.) One of the twelve apostles, called the Canaanite (Matt. 10:4; Mark 3:18). This word 'Canaanite' does not mean a native of Canaan, but is derived from the Syriac word Kanean or Kaneniah, which was the name of a Jewish sect. The Revised Version has 'Cananaean;' marg., 'or Zealot' He is also called 'Zelotes' (Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13; R.V., 'the Zealot'), because previous to his call to the apostleship he had been a member of the fanatical sect of the Zealots. There is no record regarding him.

Simri: watchman, a Levite of the family of Merari (1 Chr. 26:10).

Sin: is 'any want of conformity unto or transgression of the law of God' (1 John 3:4; Rom. 4:15), in the inward state and habit of the soul, as well as in the outward conduct of the life, whether by omission or commission (Rom. 6:12-17; 7:5-24). It is 'not a mere violation of the law of our constitution, nor of the system of things, but an offence against a personal lawgiver and moral governor who vindicates his law with penalties. The soul that sins is always conscious that his sin is (1) intrinsically vile and polluting, and (2) that it justly deserves punishment, and calls down the righteous wrath of God. Hence sin carries with it two inalienable characters, (1) ill-desert, guilt (reatus); and (2) pollution (macula).', Hodge's Outlines.

Sin-offering: (Heb. hattath), the law of, is given in detail in Lev. 4-6:13; 9:7-11, 22-24; 12:6-8; 15:2, 14, 25-30; 14:19, 31; Num. 6:10-14. On the day of Atonement it was made with special solemnity (Lev. 16:5, 11, 15). The blood was then carried into the holy of holies and sprinkled on the mercy-seat. Sin-offerings were also presented at the five annual festivals (Num. 28, 29), and on the occasion of the consecration of the priests (Ex. 29:10-14, 36). As each individual, even the most private member of the congregation, as well as the congregation at large, and the high priest, was obliged, on being convicted by his conscience of any particular sin, to come with a sin-offering, we see thus impressively disclosed the need in which every sinner stands of the salvation of Christ, and the necessity of making application to it as often as the guilt of sin renews itself upon his conscience. This resort of faith to the perfect sacrifice of Christ is the one way that lies open for the sinner's attainment of pardon and restoration to peace. And then in the sacrifice itself there is the reality of that incomparable worth and preciousness which were so significantly represented in the sin-offering by the sacredness of its blood and the hallowed destination of its flesh. With reference to this the blood of Christ is called emphatically 'the precious blood,' and the blood that 'cleanseth from all sin' (1 John 1:7).

Sinai: of Sin (the moon god), called also Horeb, the name of the mountain district which was reached by the Hebrews in the third month after the Exodus. Here they remained encamped for about a whole year. Their journey from the Red Sea to this encampment, including all the windings of the route, was about 150 miles. The last twenty-two chapters of Exodus, together with the whole of Leviticus and Num. ch. 1-11, contain a record of all the transactions which occurred while they were here. From Rephidim (Ex. 17:8-13) the Israelites journeyed forward through the Wady Solaf and Wady esh-Sheikh into the plain of er-Rahah, 'the desert of Sinai,' about 2 miles long and half a mile broad, and encamped there 'before the mountain.' The part of the mountain range, a protruding lower bluff, known as the Ras Sasafeh (Sufsafeh), rises almost perpendicularly from this plain, and is in all probability the Sinai of history. Dean Stanley thus describes the scene:, 'The plain itself is not broken and uneven and narrowly shut in, like almost all others in the range, but presents a long retiring sweep, within which the people could remove and stand afar off. The cliff, rising like a huge altar in front of the whole congregation, and visible against the sky in lonely grandeur from end to end of the whole plain, is the very image of the 'mount that might be touched,' and from which the voice of God might be heard far and wide over the plain below.' This was the scene of the giving of the law. From the Ras Sufsafeh the law was proclaimed to the people encamped below in the plain of er-Rahah. During the lengthened period of their encampment here the Israelites passed through a very memorable experience. An immense change passed over them. They are now an organized nation, bound by covenant engagement to serve the Lord their God, their ever-present divine Leader and Protector. At length, in the second month of the second year of the Exodus, they move their camp and march forward according to a prescribed order. After three days they reach the 'wilderness of Paran,' the 'et-Tih', i.e., 'the desert', and here they make their first encampment. At this time a spirit of discontent broke out amongst them, and the Lord manifested his displeasure by a fire which fell on the encampment and inflicted injury on them. Moses called the place Taberah (q.v.), Num. 11:1-3. The journey between Sinai and the southern boundary of the Promised Land (about 150 miles) at Kadesh was accomplished in about a year. (See MAP facing page 204.)

Sinaiticus codex: usually designated by the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet, is one of the most valuable of ancient MSS. of the Greek New Testament. On the occasion of a third visit to the convent of St. Catherine, on Mount Sinai, in 1859, it was discovered by Dr. Tischendorf. He had on a previous visit in 1844 obtained forty-three parchment leaves of the LXX., which he deposited in the university library of Leipsic, under the title of the Codex Frederico-Augustanus, after his royal patron the king of Saxony. In the year referred to (1859) the emperor of Russia sent him to prosecute his search for MSS., which he was convinced were still to be found in the Sinai convent. The story of his finding the manuscript of the New Testament has all the interest of a romance. He reached the convent on 31st January; but his inquiries appeared to be fruitless. On the 4th February he had resolved to return home without having gained his object. 'On that day, when walking with the provisor of the convent, he spoke with much regret of his ill-success. Returning from their promenade, Tischendorf accompanied the monk to his room, and there had displayed to him what his companion called a copy of the LXX., which he, the ghostly brother, owned. The MS. was wrapped up in a piece of cloth, and on its being unrolled, to the surprise and delight of the critic the very document presented itself which he had given up all hope of seeing. His object had been to complete the fragmentary LXX. of 1844, which he had declared to be the most ancient of all Greek codices on vellum that are extant; but he found not only that, but a copy of the Greek New Testament attached, of the same age, and perfectly complete, not wanting a single page or paragraph.' This precious fragment, after some negotiations, he obtained possession of, and conveyed it to the Emperor Alexander, who fully appreciated its importance, and caused it to be published as nearly as possible in facsimile, so as to exhibit correctly the ancient handwriting. The entire codex consists of 346 1/2 folios. Of these 199 belong to the Old Testament and 147 1/2 to the New, along with two ancient documents called the Epistle of Barnabas and the Shepherd of Hermas. The books of the New Testament stand thus: the four Gospels, the epistles of Paul, the Acts of the Apostles, the Catholic Epistles, the Apocalypse of John. It is shown by Tischendorf that this codex was written in the fourth century, and is thus of about the same age as the Vatican codex; but while the latter wants the greater part of Matthew and sundry leaves here and there besides, the Sinaiticus is the only copy of the New Testament in uncial characters which is complete. Thus it is the oldest extant MS. copy of the New Testament. Both the Vatican and the Sinai codices were probably written in Egypt. (See VATICANUS.)

Sinim, The land of: (Isa. 49:12), supposed by some to mean China, but more probably Phoenicia (Gen. 10:17) is intended.

Sinite: an inhabitant of Sin, near Arka (Gen. 10:17; 1 Chr. 1:15). (See ARKITE.)

Stranger: This word generally denotes a person from a foreign land residing in Palestine. Such persons enjoyed many privileges in common with the Jews, but still were separate from them. The relation of the Jews to strangers was regulated by special laws (Deut. 23:3; 24:14-21; 25:5; 26:10-13). A special signification is also sometimes attached to this word. In Gen. 23:4 it denotes one resident in a foreign land; Ex. 23:9, one who is not a Jew; Num. 3:10, one who is not of the family of Aaron; Ps. 69:8, an alien or an unknown person. The Jews were allowed to purchase strangers as slaves (Lev. 25:44, 45), and to take usury from them (Deut. 23:20).

Straw: Used in brick-making (Ex. 5:7-18). Used figuratively in Job 41:27; Isa. 11:7; 25:10; 65:25.

Stream of Egypt: (Isa. 27:12), the Wady el-'Arish, called also 'the river of Egypt,' R.V., 'brook of Egypt' (Num. 34:5; Josh. 15:4; 2 Kings 24:7). It is the natural boundary of Egypt. Occasionally in winter, when heavy rains have fallen among the mountains inland, it becomes a turbulent rushing torrent. The present boundary between Egypt and Palestine is about midway between el-'Arish and Gaza.

Street: The street called 'Straight' at Damascus (Acts 9:11) is 'a long broad street, running from east to west, about a mile in length, and forming the principal thoroughfare in the city.' In Oriental towns streets are usually narrow and irregular and filthy (Ps. 18:42; Isa. 10:6). 'It is remarkable,' says Porter, 'that all the important cities of Palestine and Syria Samaria, Caesarea, Gerasa, Bozrah, Damascus, Palmyra, had their 'straight streets' running through the centre of the city, and lined with stately rows of columns. The most perfect now remaining are those of Palmyra and Gerasa, where long ranges of the columns still stand.', Through Samaria, etc.

Stripes: as a punishment were not to exceed forty (Deut. 25:1-3), and hence arose the custom of limiting them to thirty-nine (2 Cor. 11:24). Paul claimed the privilege of a Roman citizen in regard to the infliction of stripes (Acts 16:37, 38; 22:25-29). Our Lord was beaten with stripes (Matt. 27:26).

Subscriptions: The subscriptions to Paul's epistles are no part of the original. In their present form they are ascribed to Euthalius, a bishop of the fifth century. Some of them are obviously incorrect.

Suburbs: the immediate vicinity of a city or town (Num. 35:3, 7; Ezek. 45:2). In 2 Kings 23:11 the Hebrew word there used (parvarim) occurs nowhere else. The Revised Version renders it 'precincts.' The singular form of this Hebrew word (parvar) is supposed by some to be the same as Parbar (q.v.), which occurs twice in 1 Chr. 26:18.

Succoth: booths. (1.) The first encampment of the Israelites after leaving Ramesses (Ex. 12:37); the civil name of Pithom (q.v.).

Succoth-benoth: tents of daughters, supposed to be the name of a Babylonian deity, the goddess Zir-banit, the wife of Merodach, worshipped by the colonists in Samaria (2 Kings 17:30).

Sukkiims: dwellers in tents, (Vulg. and LXX., 'troglodites;' i.e., cave-dwellers in the hills along the Red Sea). Shiskak's army, with which he marched against Jerusalem, was composed partly of this tribe (2 Chr. 12:3).

Sun: (Heb. shemesh), first mentioned along with the moon as the two great luminaries of heaven (Gen. 1:14-18). By their motions and influence they were intended to mark and divide times and seasons. The worship of the sun was one of the oldest forms of false religion (Job 31:26,27), and was common among the Egyptians and Chaldeans and other pagan nations. The Jews were warned against this form of idolatry (Deut. 4:19; 17:3; comp. 2 Kings 23:11; Jer. 19:13).

Suph: (Deut. 1:1, R.V.; marg., 'some ancient versions have the Red Sea,' as in the A.V.). Some identify it with Suphah (Num. 21:14, marg., A.V.) as probably the name of a place. Others identify it with es-Sufah = Maaleh-acrabbim (Josh. 15:3), and others again with Zuph (1 Sam. 9:5). It is most probable, however, that, in accordance with the ancient versions, this word is to be regarded as simply an abbreviation of Yam-suph, i.e., the 'Red Sea.'

Suphah: (Num. 21:14, marg.; also R.V.), a place at the south-eastern corner of the Dead Sea, the Ghor es-Safieh. This name is found in an ode quoted from the 'Book of the Wars of the Lord,' probably a collection of odes commemorating the triumphs of God's people (comp. 21:14, 17, 18, 27-30).

Supper: the principal meal of the day among the Jews. It was partaken of in the early part of the evening (Mark 6:21; John 12:2; 1 Cor. 11:21). (See LORD'S SUPPER.)

Surety: one who becomes responsible for another. Christ is the surety of the better covenant (Heb. 7:22). In him we have the assurance that all its provisions will be fully and faithfully carried out. Solomon warns against incautiously becoming security for another (Prov. 6:1-5; 11:15; 17:18; 20:16).

Susanchites: the inhabitants of Shushan, who joined the other adversaries of the Jews in the attempt to prevent the rebuilding of the temple (Ezra 4:9).

Susanna: lily, with other pious women, ministered to Jesus (Luke 8:3).

Susi: the father of Gaddi, who was one of the twelve spies (Num. 13:11).

Swallow: (1.) Heb. sis (Isa. 38:14; Jer. 8:7), the Arabic for the swift, which 'is a regular migrant, returning in myriads every spring, and so suddenly that while one day not a swift can be seen in the country, on the next they have overspread the whole land, and fill the air with their shrill cry.' The swift (cypselus) is ordinarily classed with the swallow, which it resembles in its flight, habits, and migration.

Swan: mentioned in the list of unclean birds (Lev. 11:18; Deut. 14:16), is sometimes met with in the Jordan and the Sea of Galilee.

Swelling: of Jordan (Jer. 12:5), literally the 'pride' of Jordan (as in R.V.), i.e., the luxuriant thickets of tamarisks, poplars, reeds, etc., which were the lair of lions and other beasts of prey. The reference is not to the overflowing of the river banks. (Comp. 49:19; 50:44; Zech. 11:3).

Swine: (Heb. hazir), regarded as the most unclean and the most abhorred of all animals (Lev. 11:7; Isa. 65:4; 66:3, 17; Luke 15:15, 16). A herd of swine were drowned in the Sea of Galilee (Luke 8:32, 33). Spoken of figuratively in Matt. 7:6 (see Prov. 11:22). It is frequently mentioned as a wild animal, and is evidently the wild boar (Arab. khanzir), which is common among the marshes of the Jordan valley (Ps. 80:13).

Sword: of the Hebrew was pointed, sometimes two-edged, was worn in a sheath, and suspended from the girdle (Ex. 32:27; 1 Sam. 31:4; 1 Chr. 21:27; Ps. 149:6: Prov. 5:4; Ezek. 16:40; 21:3-5).

Sycamine tree: mentioned only in Luke 17:6. It is rendered by Luther 'mulberry tree' (q.v.), which is most probably the correct rendering. It is found of two species, the black mulberry (Morus nigra) and the white mulberry (Mourea), which are common in Palestine. The silk-worm feeds on their leaves. The rearing of them is one of the chief industries of the peasantry of Lebanon and of other parts of the land. It is of the order of the fig-tree. Some contend, however, that this name denotes the sycamore-fig of Luke 19:4.

Sycamore: more properly sycomore (Heb. shikmoth and shikmim, Gr. sycomoros), a tree which in its general character resembles the fig-tree, while its leaves resemble those of the mulberry; hence it is called the fig-mulberry (Ficus sycomorus). At Jericho, Zacchaeus climbed a sycomore-tree to see Jesus as he passed by (Luke 19:4). This tree was easily destroyed by frost (Ps. 78:47), and therefore it is found mostly in the 'vale' (1 Kings 10:27; 2 Chr. 1:15: in both passages the R.V. has properly 'lowland'), i.e., the 'low country,' the shephelah, where the climate is mild. Amos (7:14) refers to its fruit, which is of an inferior character; so also probably Jeremiah (24:2). It is to be distinguished from our sycamore (the Acer pseudo-platanus), which is a species of maple often called a plane-tree.

Sychar: liar or drunkard (see Isa. 28:1, 7), has been from the time of the Crusaders usually identified with Sychem or Shechem (John 4:5). It has now, however, as the result of recent explorations, been identified with 'Askar, a small Samaritan town on the southern base of Ebal, about a mile to the north of Jacob's well.

Sychem: See SHECHEM.

Syene: opening (Ezek. 29:10; 30:6), a town of Egypt, on the borders of Ethiopia, now called Assouan, on the right bank of the Nile, notable for its quarries of beautiful red granite called 'syenite.' It was the frontier town of Egypt in the south, as Migdol was in the north-east.

Synagogue: (Gr. sunagoge, i.e., 'an assembly'), found only once in the Authorized Version of Ps. 74:8, where the margin of Revised Version has 'places of assembly,' which is probably correct; for while the origin of synagogues is unknown, it may well be supposed that buildings or tents for the accommodation of worshippers may have existed in the land from an early time, and thus the system of synagogues would be gradually developed.

Syntyche: fortunate; affable, a female member of the church at Philippi, whom Paul beseeches to be of one mind with Euodias (Phil. 4:2,3).

Syracuse: a city on the south-east coast of Sicily, where Paul landed and remained three days when on his way to Rome (Acts 28:12). It was distinguished for its magnitude and splendour. It is now a small town of some 13,000 inhabitants.

Syria: (Heb. Aram), the name in the Old Testament given to the whole country which lay to the north-east of Phoenicia, extending to beyond the Euphrates and the Tigris. Mesopotamia is called (Gen. 24:10; Deut. 23:4) Aram-naharain (=Syria of the two rivers), also Padan-aram (Gen. 25:20). Other portions of Syria were also known by separate names, as Aram-maahah (1 Chr. 19:6), Aram-beth-rehob (2 Sam. 10:6), Aram-zobah (2 Sam. 10:6, 8). All these separate little kingdoms afterwards became subject to Damascus. In the time of the Romans, Syria included also a part of Palestine and Asia Minor.

Syriac: (2 Kings 18:26; Ezra 4:7; Dan. 2:4), more correctly rendered 'Aramaic,' including both the Syriac and the Chaldee languages. In the New Testament there are several Syriac words, such as 'Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani?' (Mark 15:34; Matt. 27:46 gives the Heb. form, 'Eli, Eli'), 'Raca' (Matt. 5:22), 'Ephphatha' (Mark 7:34), 'Maran-atha' (1 Cor. 16:22).

Syrophenician: 'a Greek, a Syrophenician by nation' (Mark 7:26), i.e., a Gentile born in the Phoenician part of Syria. (See PHENICIA